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Home / Industries / Bulk Chemical Loading / Acrylonitrile (C3H3N) Handling Design, Loading, and Installation.
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Although no two Acrylonitrile Loading solutions will be identical, the product itself determines much of the critical design criteria that will ensure that optimum safety and productivity can work together in harmony.
Acrylonitrile, also referred to as Vinyl Cyanide or Propenenitrile, is manufactured by combining propylene, ammonia and air in a process called ammoxidation. During this process propylene, ammonia and air are fed through a catalyst at a high temperature. Acrylonitrile is primarily used as an intermediate to produce synthetic rubber and plastics. It’s typically a colorless volatile liquid, although some commercial samples can be tainted yellow due to impurities.
In the United States, Acrylonitrile is a “tight-fill” (closed-loop) loading operation and is loaded into rail cars via chemical hoses or 3” stainless steel loading arms. Acrylonitrile, if not handled properly can cause serious injuries and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required. Additionally, because operators are on top of the vehicles during the loading process, robust, well-designed fall prevention is essential to ensure increased throughput, without compromising operator safety.
Acrylonitrile is typically shipped in 26,000 gallon DOT-111 insulated or non-insulated tank cars with safety valves that meet the DOT specification for the transportation of Acrylonitrile and other like commodities. The rails cars themselves are ~ 9′ outside diameter with an overall length of ~45’ to 50′, with a 6’ x 6’ center opening or off-set crash box openings.View Full Text
Tank truck (un)loading procedures are similar to railcar applications with the trailers meeting established DOT requirements for transporting Acrylonitrile or other like commodities.
Approved DOT trailers include MC 307 or low pressure chemical ISO containers. Trailers and ISO’s are typically bottom unloaded. An extension pipe with two valves is flanged to the top of the trailer.
All trailers must be equipped with pressure relief valves; and trailers with bottom outlets must be equipped with remote controlled stop valves.
Acrylonitrile Oil Loading Platform
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Below are some of the loading and unloading solutions for illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs.
Acrylonitrile is typically loaded into railcars or tank trucks via boom supported stainless steel loading arms or chemical hoses with a flange connection. The arm or hose will have a top inlet with a control valve to ensure that it is self-draining after use. If using a by-pass arm, the hose is supported along the length of a mechanical loading arm to improve handling. You can install one liquid and one vapor arm, or a 3” boom supported arm with vapour return hose running along the loading arm.
For unloading, typically you would use a rigid stainless steel self-draining loading arm with PTFE seals. Purge lines can be fitted to the arm, for nitrogen purging. Additional features such as parking latches with proximity sensors can be incorporated into the total system to ensure the arm is correctly stowed when not in use, before any rail movement can occur.
Acrylonitrile Loading Gangways and Safety Cages
A wider access gangway (48″-60″ is preferable) as it helps improve access and egress to and from the vessel. In addition, a wider gangway will reduce the risk of the operator’s PPE getting caught, torn or damaged, and will improve productivity and safety. Powered gangway solutions are also an option, with both hydraulic and pneumatic solutions being commonly used.
Each gangway will be fitted with a two-rail safety cage for the railcar crash box. This will be a centered 6’x6’ safety cage to sit directly over the cashbox. This will provide a safe, secure work environment for your operator when connected to their breathing apparatus
GX FLAT RAMP ACCESS (FRT) GANGWAY
SafeRack’s NEW GX-FRT is a flat ramp model popular with railcars. It features a slip-resistant walk surface and, with the use of the telescoping extension, eliminates gaps on narrow railcars. Learn More
Acrylonitrile Eye Wash/Drench Showers
ANSI guidelines state that an Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55’ (16.8m) from contaminants or hazardous materials.
Eyewash stations need to be on the same horizontal plane with no obstructions.
Therefore, we would propose the installation of a standard combination Drench Shower/Eyewash Unit, which will save limited space and fit easily into any work environment.
Acrylonitrile Spill Containment
Spill containment pans will be provided at the point of loading operations and is an essential piece of equipment in overall site safety and environmental protection
Black Liquor is not normally combustible. However risk of fire does exist in the presence of TRS gases. These fumes are flammable and can be ignited by heat or flame. Vapors have been known to travel back to ignition sources and flashback.
- Vehicle grounding and bonding — ensure true grounding before product flow is permitted
- Explosion-proof enclosures — meet or exceed UL, CSA, and Ex requirements
- Non-sparking tools are also recommended while working around this product
Acrylonitrile Safety Gates
Safety Gates will be installed at the top of stairs and any other openings to ensure operator safety at all times.
YellowGate Safety Gates
SafeRack’s line of industrial safety gates is the most flexible product on the market with the ability span openings between 16” and 36” and is field adjustable with nothing more than a wrench. Learn More
- Lighting – Lighting both over and under the platform will be provided. For overcast days or second shift, lighting is essential for improved safety and improved productivity.
- Platform & Canopies – Full platform canopies reduce exposure to the elements and improve the safe and productive loading operation from the operator’s perspective.
- Operator Shelter – Depending on your site requirements, consideration should be given to the requirement of an operator or guard building on the loading platform. This can be customized to meet specific site requirements
- Wheel Chocks – Railcar Wheel Chocks provide fast blocking of all types of railcars and meet OSHA regulations to safely prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. This is a requirement by the Department of Homeland Security
Personal Protective Equipment PPE Requirements
Eye/Face Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles. A face shield (with safety goggles) may also be necessary.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Coveralls or long sleeve shirts and pants in some operations. Wear a chemical protective, full-body encapsulating suit, and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® – PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® – PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. The following materials should NOT be used: natural rubber, polyvinyl chloride. Recommendations are NOT valid for very thin neoprene rubber gloves (0.3 mm or less).
Respiratory Protection: Up to 5 ppm:
(APF = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against chlorine*; or Any supplied-air respirator*.
*Reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards for more information.
Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control the amount in the air. Consider using a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent the release of this material due to equipment failure. * For illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs
MAJOR AMMONIA PRODUCERS WHERE WE HAVE SUCCESSFULLY EXECUTED AMMONIA LOADING PROJECTS
Customer Reviews5 5The quality of workmanship is excellent.
The product was delivered very fast and communication with my rep was very good. He made sure everything turned out well with my order. The quality of workmanship is excellent with SafeRack. Overall, my experience was positive including all aspects of the product and sale. That says a lot about the employees working for the company, which in turn says a lot about the quality of the company.By Kevin Roberts from Momentive Performance Materials, Inc. on 2/24/174 5SafeRack could not have a better face for their product.
The YellowGate product was compact and takes a lot less time to install. Light weight, adjustable to fit a wide range of platform/ladder openings and seems to be well built for long, reliable service with less parts than similar gates on the market. Jason McKnight’s sales pitch was to the point. The product line was quickly covered and the value of the product to safety was quickly realized. Jason was barely out the plant gate when he was summoned to return for assistance with proposals for the platforms around the plant. SafeRack could not have a better face for their product.By Ivor Chin from Newark Bay Cogeneration Partnership LP on 6/5/145 5Increased safety is the primary benefit.
Increased safety is the primary benefit. We had a gangway that was functioning, just did not provide the level of safety that I believe this rack will.By Ronnie Rushing from Weyerhaeuser NR Company on 5/9/125 5It’s a pleasure to do business with SafeRack.
Travis McCraine was very helpful with determining exactly what parts I needed to order. Whenever I had questions he responded very quickly! Spare part readily available, which is important to prevent downtime of a system. Lightweight, easily replaced or repaired, high quality constructed. It’s a pleasure to do business with SafeRack and will always contact them for any loading rack type jobs I have in the future. Quality products, great service and I think that speaks for itself.By Nathan Lajiness from Marathon Petroleum Corporation on 3/24/145 5I was quoted the same day as requested.
No negatives. All positive. I missed the cold call from the sales rep, Mark Gardner. I worked off his business card and catalog he left. We got the deal done over email. I was quoted the same day as requested, with price breaks for higher quantities as needed. I received my order real quick – within days. These are truly universal for our Distribution House needs, easy to install and adjust, eliminating the need for chains and hanging signs across stairways.By Bill Robison from Under Armour on 9/13/165 5Cost effective, great appearance, easy to assemble.
1. Cost effective for large area need where design would require structures needed vs. contractor building on site 2. Appearance and design is already safety-oriented to meet code 3. Structure is made to accommodate ease of assembly and access without fatal redesign cost, with prompt delivery and no issues.By Phillip Weathers from Sealed Air Corp - CRYOVAC DIV on 4/24/13
Things to know about Acrylonitrile
Acrylonitrile is a man-made colorless liquid with a sharp onion or garlic like odor. It can be dissolved in water and evaporates quickly. Acrylonitrile is an intermediate and used to make other chemicals such as plastics, synthetic rubber, and acrylic fibers.
Only properly trained and equipped personnel should be permitted to (un)load Acrylonitrile tank cars and tank trucks. Operators should wear approved PPE equipment including impervious clothing, footwear, gloves, and goggles.
Acrylonitrile is dangerous to human health, and as a corrosive chemical, acute exposure can cause severe skin burns and eye damage. Do not breathe fumes, mist, or vapors as they can be fatal if inhaled. Use only outdoors, or in a well ventilated area.
First aid measures for exposure include – removing operators from the source of exposure and into fresh air. Remove contaminated clothing immediately; wash skin thoroughly with soap and water; flush eyes with tepid water for 15 minutes. If ingested do not induce vomiting, but immediately call your local poison control center. Aspiration into the lungs can cause fatal chemical pneumonitis. If ingestion has occurred, assume there is a risk of aspiration into the lungs.
Acrylonitrile is sensitive to light and heat and can become unstable when exposed. Keep away from open flames, hot surfaces, and sources of ignition. Incompatible materials include acids, bases, bromine, and peroxides.
Acrylonitrile is corrosive to most metals including bronze, brass, carbon and milled steel, so great care should be taken to avoid contact with these materials. However, aluminum and stainless steel have little to no effect when exposed to Acrylonitrile.
Is your plant or facility compliant with ANSI, OSHA, and local safety codes? We can help!
EMERGENCY EYEWASHES / SHOWER EQUIPMENT AND THE ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 – 2014 STANDARD
Following eye contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent permanent damage. In the event of skin contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent slow-healing chemical burns.
Are you aware that ANSI guidelines state that Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55′ from contaminates or hazardous materials and located on the same horizontal plane, with no obstructions? If bottom loading/unloading, an additional shower should be located at grade as well. SafeRack provides the above equipment plus much more needed to keep employees safe and expedite bulk chemical loading and unloading.
OSHA Regulation Experts – Does your existing chemical safety equipment or chemical loading systems meet OSHA’s latest requirements? SafeRack’s professional technical sales consultants are available to meet with your team to make recommendations to keep your facility in front of OSHA’s ever-changing country and region-specific standards and regulations, including lifeline and trolley beam fall arrest systems, metal stairs, and access platforms.
The SafeRack approach is a collaborative one. Let’s call it The SafeRack Way. We have, over many years amassed a great deal of experience and understanding of the safety aspects involved in loading road tankers and railcars, as well as the behavioral habits of the operators.
Experts In Chemical Loading
North America’s largest loading terminal
World-leading designer, manufacturer, and installer of truck and railcar loading platforms
As one of the primary railcar loading points, Hardisty is one of the major crude oil hubs in North America and a major origination point of pipelines that export to the United States. SCS was asked to supply and construct a SafeRack crude oil loadout terminal spanning nearly half a mile. The USD Hardisty terminal can load up to two 120-railcar unit trains per day and consists of a fixed loading rack with 62 railcar loading positions enclosed, separate control, operator and mechanical buildings, as well as a unit train staging area and loop tracks capable of holding multiple unit trains simultaneously. SCS also supplied and installed boom-supported loading arms with supply and vapor management systems.
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Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina