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Although no two Black Liquor Loading solutions will be identical, the product itself determines much of the critical design criteria that will ensure that optimum safety and productivity can work together in harmony.
Black Liquor is the spent liquor from the Kraft process in which pulpwood is converted into paper pulp by removing lignin and hemicellulose elements and other extractable materials from wood chips to separate the cellulose fibers.View Full Text
In the United States, Black Liquor is typically top loaded, through a stainless steel 4” loading arm with a vapor plate and 3” vapour return hose creating a “tight-fill” (closed-loop) loading operation. Black Liquor, if not handled properly can cause serious injuries (burns) and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required. Additionally, because operators are on top of the vehicles during the loading process, robust, well-designed fall prevention is essential to ensure increased throughput, without compromising operator safety. In this instance,in terms of safety standards, OSHA General Duty Clause, Section 5(a)(1) is worth reviewing
Black liquor is typically transported in 26,000 gallon DOT-111 tank cars with safety valves that meet the DOT specification for the transportation of black liquor and other commodities. The rails cars themselves are ~ 9′ outside diameter with an overall length of ~45’ to 50′, with a 6’ x 6’ center opening or off-set crash box openings.
Tank truck (un)loading procedures are similar to railcar applications with the trailers meeting established DOT requirements for transporting Turpentine or other like commodities. Approved DOT trailers include MC 307 or low pressure chemical ISO containers. Trailers and ISO’s are typically bottom unloaded.
All trailers must be equipped with pressure relief valves; and trailers with bottom outlets must be equipped with remote controlled stop valves.
Typical Black Liquor Loading Platform
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Below are some of the loading and unloading solutions for illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs.
Black Liquor Loading Arms
Black Liquor is typically loaded into railcars or tank trucks via a 4” boom supported stainless steel loading arm, with a 3” stainless steel vapor hose. The arm can also be designed to self-drain after each use. Other loading considerations may include: vapor line pressure switch to avoid over pressurization; Endress & Hauser Nivotester Liquifant high-level probe; parking latch and sensors, and bonding straps for electrical continuity.
For unloading, black liquor is typically bottom unloaded via a rigid stainless steel, self-draining arm or 20’ flex hose with flanged ends or dry disconnect fittings.
Loading Gangways and Safety Cages
A wider access gangway (36″-48″ is preferable) as it helps improve access and egress to and from the vessel. In addition, a wider gangway will reduce the risk of the operator’s PPE getting caught, torn or damaged, and will improve productivity and safety. Powered gangway solutions are also an option, with both hydraulic and pneumatic solutions being commonly used.
Each gangway will be fitted with a two-rail safety cage for the railcar crash box. This will be a centered 6’x6’ safety cage to sit directly over the cashbox. This will provide a safe, secure work environment for your operator when connected to their breathing apparatus
GX FLAT RAMP ACCESS (FRT) GANGWAY
SafeRack’s NEW GX-FRT is a flat ramp model popular with railcars. It features a slip-resistant walk surface and, with the use of the telescoping extension, eliminates gaps on narrow railcars. Learn More
Black Liquor Eye Wash/Drench Showers
ANSI guidelines state that an Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55’ (16.8m) from contaminants or hazardous materials.
Eyewash stations need to be on the same horizontal plane with no obstructions.
Therefore, we would propose the installation of a standard combination Drench Shower/Eyewash Unit, which will save limited space and fit easily into any work environment.
Black Liquor Spill Containment
Spill containment pans will be provided at the point of loading operations and is an essential piece of equipment in overall site safety and environmental protection
Black Liquor Grounding
Black Liquor is not normally combustible. However risk of fire does exist in the presence of TRS gases. These fumes are flammable and can be ignited by heat or flame. Vapors have been known to travel back to ignition sources and flashback.
- Vehicle grounding and bonding — ensure true grounding before product flow is permitted
- Explosion-proof enclosures — meet or exceed UL, CSA, and Ex requirements
- Non-sparking tools are also recommended while working around this product
Black Liquor Safety Gates
Safety Gates will be installed at the top of stairs and any other openings to ensure operator safety at all times.
YellowGate Safety Gates
SafeRack’s line of industrial safety gates is the most flexible product on the market with the ability span openings between 16” and 36” and is field adjustable with nothing more than a wrench. Learn More
Black Liquor Options
- Lighting – Lighting both over and under the platform will be provided. For overcast days or second shift, lighting is essential for improved safety and improved productivity.
- Platform & Canopies – Full platform canopies reduce exposure to the elements and improve the safe and productive loading operation from the operator’s perspective.
- Operator Shelter – Depending on your site requirements, consideration should be given to the requirement of an operator or guard building on the loading platform. This can be customized to meet specific site requirements
- Wheel Chocks – Railcar Wheel Chocks provide fast blocking of all types of railcars and meet OSHA regulations to safely prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. This is a requirement by the Department of Homeland Security
Personal Protective Equipment PPE Requirements
Eye/Face Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles. A face shield (with safety goggles) may also be necessary.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Coveralls or long sleeve shirts and pants in some operations. Wear a chemical protective, full-body encapsulating suit, and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® – PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® – PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. The following materials should NOT be used: natural rubber, polyvinyl chloride. Recommendations are NOT valid for very thin neoprene rubber gloves (0.3 mm or less).
Respiratory Protection: Up to 5 ppm:
(APF = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against chlorine*; or Any supplied-air respirator*.
*Reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards for more information.
Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control the amount in the air. Consider using a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent the release of this material due to equipment failure. * For illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs
Customer Reviews4 5Absolutely no negative responses on my parts.
The product was delivered the same day – very fast response. This quick response allows me to not carry more than one spare for 6 spaces. No hassle ordering process. Timely shipping and follow up. I would recommend your products. I have been through this process with three of your competitors with no comparison to match. Absolutely no negative responses on my parts. I have one rail multi-position gangway and now three single space gangways. Any additions in the future, including replacing three Carbis units, will be SafeRack.By Bill Strong from Arclin USA, Inc on 5/3/115 5I have never had an issue with the service from SafeRack.
Extremely responsive and helpful. I have always had great dealings with SafeRack. Caelin Lacy is great to deal with always.
Great price. Great quality. [Exactly] what I [was] looking for.By Nathan Winchester from Brenntag Canada, Inc. on 5/14/185 5Exceeded our expectations and was delivered in less than one week
The platform we order provides access to top of load on flatbed trucks loading lumber. Safer for the driver to use self-adjusting stair and platform versus climbing on the trailer. My sales person was easy to deal with, had excellent communication, and knowledgeable of the product.By Mike Latta from Interfor U.S., Inc. on 6/12/195 5Easy access over the conveyor belt, Quality product
We needed a work platform and SafeRack delivered right on time. Very happy with the purchase.By Glenn Farrugia from Voestalpine Texas LLC on 6/26/195 5The SafeRack products that I have used are superior to the competition.
I have purchased multiple products from SafeRack in the past and have always had good results. I was the first one within our company that made the switch from Carbis and many of our locations have followed suit. I have a lot of confidence in the SafeRack line of products and have always experienced a positive outcome. Ray Evans is very customer oriented and is always very responsive in answering any questions or concerns. I have been recommending SafeRack for years. The SafeRack products that I have used are superior to the competition.By Warren Burchett from Calportland Company on 1/31/135 5Great customer service.
Good quality product, safe, easy to use, easy to maneuver, and great customer service.By Bobbette Outlaw from VSE Corporation on 6/8/12
Black Liquor 101
Things to know about Black Liquor
Black liquor is a brown to black liquid with an odor similar to rotten eggs, and soluble in water. It’s a chemical mixture comprising an aqueous solution of lignin residues (and cellulose (both organic substances) and is the result or by-product of spent pulping liquor. Other product uses include burning the black liquor in the recovery boiler to reclaim certain pulping chemicals to be reused. Tall oil can also be extracted from the liquor.
Black liquor can cause severe skin burns, eye, and lung damage. As any caustic liquid, exposure to black liquor can cause coagulative necrosis that can lead to extensive tissue damage, as well as, damage to the respiratory system if mists or vapors are inhaled.
Caustic Kraft process liquors, under certain conditions, can produce toxic sulfur gases that include hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide. These gases are hazardous and their concentration will vary depending on whether the liquor is a strong or weak liquor. Regardless of the concentration, extreme care should be taken while working around these chemicals.
First aid measures for exposure include – removing operators from the source of exposure and into fresh air. Remove contaminated clothing immediately; wash skin thoroughly with soap and water; flush eyes with tepid water for 15 minutes. If ingested do not induce vomiting, but immediately call your local poison control center.
Avoid heat, flames, sparks and other sources of ignition. May ignite or explode on contact with combustible materials. Contact with acids may release potentially deadly concentrations of hydrogen sulfide gas. Black liquor is also incompatible with acids, most metals, and oxidizing materials.
Is your plant or facility compliant with ANSI, OSHA, and local safety codes? We can help!
EMERGENCY EYEWASHES / SHOWER EQUIPMENT AND THE ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 – 2014 STANDARD
Following eye contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent permanent damage. In the event of skin contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent slow-healing chemical burns.
Are you aware that ANSI guidelines state that Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55′ from contaminates or hazardous materials and located on the same horizontal plane, with no obstructions? If bottom loading/unloading, an additional shower should be located at grade as well. SafeRack provides the above equipment plus much more needed to keep employees safe and expedite bulk chemical loading and unloading.
OSHA Regulation Experts – Does your existing chemical safety equipment or chemical loading systems meet OSHA’s latest requirements? SafeRack’s professional technical sales consultants are available to meet with your team to make recommendations to keep your facility in front of OSHA’s ever-changing country and region-specific standards and regulations, including lifeline and trolley beam fall arrest systems, metal stairs, and access platforms.
The SafeRack approach is a collaborative one. Let’s call it The SafeRack Way. We have, over many years amassed a great deal of experience and understanding of the safety aspects involved in loading road tankers and railcars, as well as the behavioral habits of the operators.
Experts In Chemical Loading
- Aluminum Sulfate
- Ammonium Nitrate
- DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid)
- Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid
- Ethyl Chloride
- Ferrous Chloride
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Methyl Ethyl Ketone
- Molten Sulphur
- Nitric Acid
- Renewable Diesel
- Sodium Hypochlorite
- Sulfuric Acid
- Sulfur Dioxide
- Titanium Tetrachloride
- UAN (Urea Ammonium Nitrate)
- Vinyl Chloride
- Specialty Chemical
North America’s largest loading terminal
World-leading designer, manufacturer, and installer of truck and railcar loading platforms
As one of the primary railcar loading points, Hardisty is one of the major crude oil hubs in North America and a major origination point of pipelines that export to the United States. SCS was asked to supply and construct a SafeRack crude oil loadout terminal spanning nearly half a mile. The USD Hardisty terminal can load up to two 120-railcar unit trains per day and consists of a fixed loading rack with 62 railcar loading positions enclosed, separate control, operator and mechanical buildings, as well as a unit train staging area and loop tracks capable of holding multiple unit trains simultaneously. SCS also supplied and installed boom-supported loading arms with supply and vapor management systems.
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Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina