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Home / Industries / Bulk Chemical Loading / Titanium Tetrachloride (TiCl4) Handling Design, Loading, and Installation.
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Although no two Titanium Tetrachloride Loading solutions will be identical, the product itself determines much of the critical design criteria that will ensure that optimum safety and productivity can work together in harmony.
What is Titanium Tetrachloride? Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless to pale yellow liquid that has fumes with a strong or pungent odor. If it comes in contact with water, it rapidly forms hydrochloric acid (HCl), as well as other titanium compounds. While not found naturally in the environment, TiCl4 is made from minerals that contain titanium and used to make titanium metal and other titanium-containing compounds. One such compound is titanium dioxide, which is used as a white pigment in paints, paper, and to produce other chemicals.
In the United States, Titanium Tetrachloride is typically a “tight-fill” (closed-loop) loading operation and is loaded into rail cars via chemical hoses or 3” carbon steel by-pass loading arms. Titanium Tetrachloride, if not handled properly can cause serious injuries and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required. Additionally, because operators are on top of the vehicles during the loading process, fall prevention is essential, not only for safety but increases throughput.
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Our experts simplify the complexBulk Chemical Specialist
“As subject matter expert, I’ll leverage my years of experience as your personal consultant throughout the project to ensure you get a world-class solution.”Ray Evans-Bulk Chemical Market SpecialistContract# 47QSAWA19D0085View Full Text
Titanium Tetrachloride is typically shipped in DOT-103 tank railcars, MC 312 ISO containers corrosive truck trailers.
Titanium Tetrachloride is typically shipped in 10,000 gallon DOT-103 insulated or non-insulated tank cars with safety valves that meet the DOT specification for the transportation of titanium tetrachloride and other like commodities. The rails cars themselves are ~ 9′ outside diameter with an overall length of ~33’ to 41′, with a 6’ x 6’ center opening or off-set crash box openings.
Tank truck (un)loading procedures are similar to railcar applications with the trailers meeting established DOT requirements for hauling titanium tetrachloride or other like commodities. Approved DOT trailers include MC 312 or Maritime ISO containers.
Trailers are top unloaded. An extension pipe with two valves is flanged to the top of the trailer. One valve is located at the top, and the other is at the end of the pipe on the bottom for easy access. Trailers should arrive on-site with blind flanges.
All trailers must be equipped with pressure relief valves, and trailers with bottom outlets must be equipped with remote-controlled stop valves.
Typically, as a starting point, we will need to know answers to these questions for your project
- The Railcar connection locations need flexibility – Do you know what the breadbasket connections look like?
- Are you using liquid and vapor arms/hose as two separate devices or a piggyback arm?
- Is the loading station indoors or outdoors?
- Is the loading area temperature controlled?
- How are you going to spot your railcars
Our highly trained technical sales team will undertake a detailed site survey prior to undertaking any work to check and clarify all dimensions, obstructions, access issues and other salient points. Our challenge is to provide the safest working environment – protecting operators and the equipment – while simultaneously enabling you to improve throughput and productivity.
Your Project Needs
Whether you are looking for a turn-key installation, on-site supervision or a maintenance program, SafeRack is positioned to assist you. We can do as little or as much as you need. Our project management and supervision team is the best in the business at supporting your company’s needs.
- Collaborative Design – Our loading platform specialists will work with you one on one, if you design to design the best loading solution for your specific needs
- Contract review – drawings and associated documents relating to the contract prior to site arrival
- Risk Assessment – Undertaking a site risk assessment
- Shipment Inspection – Detection of any shipping damage or abnormalities
- Material Receiving – Supervised off-loading and transport at site
- Installation Management – Supervised Installations and Coordination
- Start-up & Commissioning – On-site training for both users and maintenance personnel
Generally speaking, SafeRack recommends rigid pipe loading arms where possible for the following reasons:
- Balanced throughout their movement envelope
- Designed not to hit the ground – protecting the asset and the operator
- Ergonomic – one man operation
- Fitted with manual or actuated valves.
- Fitted with optional purge/vent facilities
- Can be moved into position with ease and left hanging in the air while the operator prepares the tanker connection
- Parked neatly
- Annual pressure test
- Are difficult to stow neatly when not in use
- Can be dropped
- Can be driven over
- Are very heavy to use if fitted with a valve at the tanker connection point
- Cannot be easily heated or have vent/purge valves fitted to it
- Prone to catastrophic failure
Typical Titanium Tetrachloride (TiCl4) Loading Platform
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Below are some of the loading and unloading solutions for illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs.
Titanium Tetrachloride Loading Arms
Titanium Tetrachloride is typically loaded into railcars or tank trucks via chemical hoses. The current best loading practice is to use a 3″ chemical hose with a carbon steel flange connection.The hose will have a top inlet with a control valve to ensure that it is self-draining after use and is supported along the length of a mechanical loading arm to improve handling; this is known as a “by-pass” arm. You can install one liquid and one vapor arm, or mount both the liquid and vapor hoses on one by-pass arm.
Special precautions are taken to prevent a TiCl4 leak. Flanged connections are used since quick connections can become fouled with titanium solids and are prone to leaks. A flange also provides a more reliable seal. Note: unloading hoses must be replaced annually to ensure their integrity.
Loading Gangways and Safety Cages
A wider access gangway (48″-60″ is preferable) as it helps improve access and egress to and from the vessel. In addition, a wider gangway will reduce the risk of the operator’s PPE getting caught, torn or damaged, and will improve productivity and safety. Powered gangway solutions are also an option, with both hydraulic and pneumatic solutions being commonly used.
Each gangway will be fitted with a two-rail safety cage for the railcar crash box. This will be a centered 6’x6’ safety cage to sit directly over the cashbox. This will provide a safe, secure work environment for your operator when connected to their breathing apparatus
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Titanium Tetrachloride Eye Wash/Drench Showers
ANSI guidelines state that an Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55’ (16.8m) from contaminants or hazardous materials.
Eyewash stations need to be on the same horizontal plane with no obstructions.
Therefore, we would propose the installation of a standard combination Drench Shower/Eyewash Unit, which will save limited space and fit easily into any work environment.
Titanium Tetrachloride Spill Containment
Spill containment pans will be provided at the point of loading operations and is an essential piece of equipment in overall site safety and environmental protection
Titanium Tetrachloride Grounding
Titanium Tetrachloride is extremely flammable, and industry best practice includes the grounding of all vessels before starting the (un)loading process. The use of non-sparking tools and equipment is also mandatory while working around this product.
- Vehicle grounding and bonding — ensure true grounding before product flow is permitted
- Explosion-proof enclosures — meet or exceed UL, CSA and Ex requirements
Titanium Tetrachloride Safety Gates
Safety Gates will be installed at the top of stairs and any other openings to ensure operator safety at all times.
YellowGate Safety Gates
SafeRack’s line of industrial safety gates is the most flexible product on the market with the ability to span openings between 16” and 36” and is field adjustable with nothing more than a wrench. Learn More
Titanium Tetrachloride Options
- Lighting – Lighting both over and under the platform will be provided. For overcast days or second shift, lighting is essential for improved safety and improved productivity.
- Platform & Canopies – Full platform canopies reduce exposure to the elements and improve the safe and productive loading operation from the operator’s perspective.
- Operator Shelter – Depending on your site requirements, consideration should be given to the requirement of an operator or guard building on the loading platform. This can be customized to meet specific site requirements
- Wheel Chocks – Railcar Wheel Chocks provide fast blocking of all types of railcars and meet OSHA regulations to safely prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. This is a requirement by the Department of Homeland Security
Personal Protective Equipment PPE Requirements
Eye/Face Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles. A face shield (with safety goggles) may also be necessary.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Coveralls or long sleeve shirts and pants in some operations. Wear a chemical protective, full-body encapsulating suit, and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® – PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® – PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. The following materials should NOT be used: natural rubber, polyvinyl chloride. Recommendations are NOT valid for very thin neoprene rubber gloves (0.3 mm or less).
Respiratory Protection: Up to 5 ppm:
(APF = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against chlorine*; or Any supplied-air respirator*.
*Reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards for more information.
Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control the amount in the air. Consider using a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent the release of this material due to equipment failure. * For illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs
Things to know about Titanium Tetrachloride
TiCl4 is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and is classified as a corrosive and reactive material (explosion hazard), with the DOT identification number UN 1838.
Titanium Tetrachloride is a colorless or pale yellow liquid used as an intermediate in the production of titanium metal and other titanium-containing compounds, such as titanium dioxide and pigments. Although soluble in water, TiCl4 will react violently with water or moist air to form Hydrochloric acid mist, which creates a dense white, highly visible cloud.
Titanium Tetrachloride is a corrosive compound and exposure via inhalation, ingestion, eye or skin contact has a negative effect on the body’s central nervous system. Breathing in can irritate the lungs causing coughing and shortness of breath. Higher exposures can cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency. Exposure can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term effects can occur at some time after exposure and can last for months or years.
Only properly trained and equipped personnel should be permitted to unload tank trucks. Operators should wear an approved respiratory protective device, and impervious clothing, footwear, gloves, and goggles.
Unfortunately, OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) have not been clearly established. However, this does not mean that this substance is not harmful; therefore, safe work practices should always be followed.
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Is your plant or facility compliant with ANSI, OSHA, and local safety codes? We can help!
EMERGENCY EYEWASHES / SHOWER EQUIPMENT AND THE ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 – 2014 STANDARD
Following eye contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent permanent damage. In the event of skin contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent slow-healing chemical burns.
Are you aware that ANSI guidelines state that Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55′ from contaminates or hazardous materials and located on the same horizontal plane, with no obstructions? If bottom loading/unloading, an additional shower should be located at grade as well. SafeRack provides the above equipment plus much more needed to keep employees safe and expedite bulk chemical loading and unloading.
OSHA Regulation Experts – Does your existing chemical safety equipment or chemical loading systems meet OSHA’s latest requirements? SafeRack’s professional technical sales consultants are available to meet with your team to make recommendations to keep your facility in front of OSHA’s ever-changing country and region-specific standards and regulations, including lifeline and trolley beam fall arrest systems, metal stairs, and access platforms.
The SafeRack approach is a collaborative one. Let’s call it The SafeRack Way. We have, over many years amassed a great deal of experience and understanding of the safety aspects involved in loading road tankers and railcars, as well as the behavioral habits of the operators.
Experts In Chemical Loading
- Acetic Acid
- Acetic Anhydride
- Acrylic Acid
- Aluminum Chloride
- Aluminum Sulfate
- Ammonium Hydroxide
- Ammonium Nitrate
- Benzyl Chloride
- DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid)
- Diethylene Glycol
- Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid
- Ethyl Chloride
- Ethylene Dichloride
- Ethylene Glycol
- Ethylene Oxide
- Ferric Chloride
- Ferrous Chloride
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Hydrofluoric Acid
- Hydrofluorosilicic Acid
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Hydrofluoric Acid
- Hypochlorous Acid
- Isopropyl Acetate
- Maleic Anhydride
- Methyl Chloride
- Methyl Ethyl Ketone
- Methyl Methacrylate
- Molten Sulphur
- Nitric Acid
- Phosphoric Acid
- Phosphorus Trichloride
- Renewable Diesel
- Sodium Cyanide
- Sodium Hydroxide
- Sodium Hypochlorite
- Styrene Monomer
- Sulfuric Acid
- Sulfur Dioxide
- Titanium Tetrachloride
- UAN (Urea Ammonium Nitrate)
- Vinyl Acetate
- Vinyl Chloride
- Zinc Chloride
- Specialty Chemical
North America’s largest loading terminal
World-leading designer, manufacturer, and installer of truck and railcar loading platforms
As one of the primary railcar loading points, Hardisty is one of the major crude oil hubs in North America and a major origination point of pipelines that export to the United States. SCS was asked to supply and construct a SafeRack crude oil loadout terminal spanning nearly half a mile. The USD Hardisty terminal can load up to two 120-railcar unit trains per day and consists of a fixed loading rack with 62 railcar loading positions enclosed, separate control, operator and mechanical buildings, as well as a unit train staging area and loop tracks capable of holding multiple unit trains simultaneously. SCS also supplied and installed boom-supported loading arms with supply and vapor management systems.
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Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina