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Vinyl Chloride (C2H3CI), also referred to as vinyl chloride monomer, or chloroethene is a colorless, extremely flammable gas that evaporates very quickly. It’s used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, wire coatings, vehicle upholstery, wall & floor coverings, and plastic kitchenware.
Vinyl Chloride is transported via rail or truck as a liquefied gas under its own vapor pressure.
In the United States, Vinyl Chloride is a “tight-fill” (closed-loop) loading operation and is top-loaded into trucks or rail cars via chemical hoses or stainless steel loading arms with vapor recovery. Vinyl Chloride is a known carcinogen, and if not handled properly can be fatal so full Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required. Additionally, because operators are on top of the vehicles during the loading process, fall prevention is essential, not only for safety but increases throughput.View Full Text
Vinyl Chloride is typically transported in pressurized non-insulated tank cars or truck trailers
The rail cars, commonly 33,500-gallon, with a 9′ outside diameter and an overall length of ~47′ have offset crashbox openings of varying lengths and widths with a continuous guardrail down one side of the railcar.
Tank truck (un)loading procedures are similar to railcar applications with the trailers meeting established DOT requirements for transporting Vinyl Chloride or other similar commodities. Approved DOT trailers include MC 300 thru MC 312, MC 330 and MC 331.
Road trailers are top unloaded. An extension pipe with two valves is flanged to the top of the trailer. One valve is located at the top, and the other is at the end of the pipe on the bottom for easy access. Trailers should arrive on-site with blind flanges.
All trailers must be equipped with pressure relief valves; and trailers with bottom outlets must be equipped with remote-controlled stop valves.
Typical Vinyl Chloride Loading Platform
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Below are some of the loading and unloading solutions for illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs.
Vinyl Chloride Loading Arms
Stainless steel is a widely accepted material of choice for loading, since Vinyl Chloride is incompatible with aluminum and carbon steel. A PTFE lined loading arm is also an acceptable alternative. Couple the arm with Fluorocarbon or Viton seals and you have a good combination of corrosion-resistant materials that will hold up to the rigors of vinyl chloride (un)loading. Some organizations prefer to use a Chemraz “H” block seal for this application. Each swivel joint in the loading arm can be fitted with leak detection ports for added security
Vinyl Chloride is considered an inhalation hazard. Therefore, vapor recovery is mandated via a rigid vapor return line, rather than hoses.
Loading Gangways and Safety Cages
A wider stainless steel access gangway (48″-60″ is preferable) as it helps improve access and egress to and from the vessel. In addition, a wider gangway will reduce the risk of the operator’s PPE getting caught, torn or damaged, and will improve productivity and safety. Powered gangway solutions are also an option, with both hydraulic and pneumatic solutions being commonly used.
Each gangway will be fitted with a two-rail safety cage for the railcar crash box. This will provide a safe, secure work environment for your operator when connected to their breathing apparatus
GX SELF-ADJUSTING STAIR (SAS) GANGWAY
SafeRack’s NEW GX SAS gangways uses Retractalok power-assist technology allowing operators to raise or lower effortlessly, light as a feather to lift, solid as a rock. Tested in the most critical applications, this revolutionary new gangway outperforms all others. Available in multiple lengths and widths. Learn More
Vinyl Chloride Eye Wash/Drench Showers
ANSI guidelines state that an Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55’ (16.8m) from contaminants or hazardous materials.
Eyewash stations need to be on the same horizontal plane with no obstructions.
Therefore, we would propose the installation of a standard combination Drench Shower/Eyewash Unit, which will save limited space and fit easily into any work environment.
Vinyl Chloride Spill Containment
Spill containment pans will be provided at the point of loading operations and is an essential piece of equipment in overall site safety and environmental protection
Vinyl Chloride Grounding
Vinyl Chloride is extremely flammable, and industry best practice includes the grounding of all vessels before starting the (un)loading process. The use of non-sparking tools and equipment is also mandatory while working around this product.
- Vehicle grounding and bonding — ensure true grounding before product flow is permitted
- Explosion-proof enclosures — meet or exceed UL, CSA and Ex requirements
Vinyl Chloride Safety Gates
Safety Gates will be installed at the top of stairs and any other openings to ensure operator safety at all times.
YellowGate Safety Gates
SafeRack’s line of industrial safety gates is the most flexible product on the market with the ability to span openings between 16” and 36” and is field adjustable with nothing more than a wrench. Learn More
Vinyl Chloride Options
- Lighting – Lighting both over and under the platform will be provided. For overcast days or second shift, lighting is essential for improved safety and improved productivity.
- Platform & Canopies – Full platform canopies reduce exposure to the elements and improve the safe and productive loading operation from the operator’s perspective.
- Operator Shelter – Depending on your site requirements, consideration should be given to the requirement of an operator or guard building on the loading platform. This can be customized to meet specific site requirements
- Wheel Chocks – Railcar Wheel Chocks provide fast blocking of all types of railcars and meet OSHA regulations to safely prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. This is a requirement by the Department of Homeland Security
Personal Protective Equipment PPE Requirements
Eye/Face Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles. A face shield (with safety goggles) may also be necessary.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Coveralls or long sleeve shirts and pants in some operations. Wear a chemical protective, full-body encapsulating suit, and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® – PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® – PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. The following materials should NOT be used: natural rubber, polyvinyl chloride. Recommendations are NOT valid for very thin neoprene rubber gloves (0.3 mm or less).
Respiratory Protection: Up to 5 ppm:
(APF = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against chlorine*; or Any supplied-air respirator*.
*Reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards for more information.
Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control the amount in the air. Consider using a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent the release of this material due to equipment failure. * For illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs
Things to know about Vinyl Chloride
Vinyl Chloride is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and is classified as a hazardous and flammable material, with the DOT identification number UN 1086.
Vinyl Chloride is a colorless flammable gas. It burns easily and is not stable at high temperatures. It is a manufactured substance that does not occur naturally and can be formed when trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene are broken down.
Vinyl chloride is an intermediate in the production of PVC plastic used in a wide range of products including pipes, cable coatings, packaging materials, housewares, automotive parts, and medical devices.
Short term exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride has adverse effects on the central nervous system, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and headaches. Long term exposure through inhalation and oral exposure in humans has resulted in liver damage. Exposure to the skin may cause frostbite, as liquid quickly transforms into a gas when exposed to the atmosphere.
Vinyl chloride is stable and not reactive under normal temperatures and pressures. However, care must be taken to avoid air and direct sunlight. Avoid heat, flames, sparks, and other sources of ignition, as electrostatic charges may build up during handling and may form ignitable vapor-air mixtures. Large fires of this material are practically inextinguishable. If the operator can’t stop the flow it’s best to let it burn out.
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Is your plant or facility compliant with ANSI, OSHA, and local safety codes? We can help!
EMERGENCY EYEWASHES / SHOWER EQUIPMENT AND THE ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 – 2014 STANDARD
Following eye contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent permanent damage. In the event of skin contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent slow-healing chemical burns.
Are you aware that ANSI guidelines state that Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55′ from contaminates or hazardous materials and located on the same horizontal plane, with no obstructions? If bottom loading/unloading, an additional shower should be located at grade as well. SafeRack provides the above equipment plus much more needed to keep employees safe and expedite bulk chemical loading and unloading.
OSHA Regulation Experts – Does your existing chemical safety equipment or chemical loading systems meet OSHA’s latest requirements? SafeRack’s professional technical sales consultants are available to meet with your team to make recommendations to keep your facility in front of OSHA’s ever-changing country and region-specific standards and regulations, including lifeline and trolley beam fall arrest systems, metal stairs, and access platforms.
The SafeRack approach is a collaborative one. Let’s call it The SafeRack Way. We have, over many years amassed a great deal of experience and understanding of the safety aspects involved in loading road tankers and railcars, as well as the behavioral habits of the operators.
Experts In Chemical Loading
North America’s largest loading terminal
World-leading designer, manufacturer, and installer of truck and railcar loading platforms
As one of the primary railcar loading points, Hardisty is one of the major crude oil hubs in North America and a major origination point of pipelines that export to the United States. SCS was asked to supply and construct a SafeRack crude oil loadout terminal spanning nearly half a mile. The USD Hardisty terminal can load up to two 120-railcar unit trains per day and consists of a fixed loading rack with 62 railcar loading positions enclosed, separate control, operator and mechanical buildings, as well as a unit train staging area and loop tracks capable of holding multiple unit trains simultaneously. SCS also supplied and installed boom-supported loading arms with supply and vapor management systems.
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Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina