SafeRack’s Industrial Index

A

  • Acceptable
    The U. S. Department Of Energy definition. ACCEPTABLE. When applied to fire safety, “acceptable” is a level of protection which the Authority Having Jurisdiction, after consultation with the cognizant DOE fire protection engineer(s), considers sufficient to achieve the fire and…
  • Accident
    The Department Of Energy Definition of an accident. ACCIDENT. An unwanted transfer of energy or an environmental condition that, due to the absence or failure of barriers or controls, produces injury to persons, damage to property, or reduction in process…
  • Accident Analyses
    ACCIDENT ANALYSES. For the purposes of properly implementing DOE O 5480.21, the term accident analyses refer to those bounding analyses selected for inclusion in the safety analysis report. These analyses refer to design basis accidents only. The implementation of a…
  • Accountability
    ACCOUNTABILITY. The state of being liable for explanation to a superior DOE official for the exercise of authority. Ultimate accountability is to the Secretary, who may delegate authority or share responsibility for specified actions. The delegate of authority is accountable…
  • Active Fault Inactive Faults
    According to Definitions Active and Inactive faults are defined as…Active fault – An active fault is a fault that is likely to have another earthquake sometime in the future. Faults are commonly considered to be active if there has been…
  • Additions And Modifications
    ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS: Changes to a structure, system, and component (SSC) for reasons other than increasing resistance to natural phenomena hazards. SOURCE: U.S. Department Of Energy Modifications to enhance the safety level for employees can keep your company within OSHA…
  • Administrative Controls
    ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS and Standard Operating Procedures relating to organization and management, procedures, record keeping, assessment, and reporting necessary to ensure safe operation of a facility. With respect to nuclear facilities, administrative controls mean the section of the Technical Safety Requirements…
  • Administrative Controls
    ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS. Provisions relating to organization and management, procedures, recordkeeping, assessment, and reporting necessary to ensure safe operation of a facility. Source U.S. Department of Energy Keeping an eye on compliance requirements is paramount.…
  • Adsorption
    Adsorption happens when atoms or molecules form and stick to a surface area of different molecules and atoms.   Byproduct atoms and molecules are commonly found in liquid, dissolved solids, or in gas forms. Wet sand is a common example…
  • AHJ Authority Having Jurisdiction
      Authority Having Jurisdiction Definition or AHJ: An entity that has the authority and responsibility for developing, implementing, maintaining, and overseeing the qualification process within its organization or jurisdiction. This may be a state or Federal agency, training commission, NGO,…
  • Air Eliminators
    Air eliminators are installed components. They are placed in fuel and liquid transfer systems. Eliminators remove the accumulated air in hoses and tanks.   Oxygen, in any transfer or tank system, must be vented or let out to enable metering…
  • Air Header
    The air header is the main trunk line in a compressed air system that carries compressed air from the compressor to air drops located in a plant, or distribution center.  Many pieces of pneumatic equipment are powered by compressed air.…
  • Air Soap Testing
    Air Soap Testing is conducted on storage tanks and their pipelines before the container is set permanently. This test is the best chance to determine if welds, joints, and the tank itself do not have any leaks before everything is…
  • Air Sparging
    Air sparging is a method for eliminating contaminants from soil and underground water sources.   Fuel spills and storage tank leaks contribute to water and soil contamination. Air sparging involves injecting large quantities of compressed air beneath the water source.…
  • Air stripper
    An air stripper treats contaminated water. The stripper processes contaminated water into steam vapors. Filtering the contaminated steam vapors to become clean water is the next step.  Air Stripping is the process of moving air through contaminated groundwater or surface…
  • Air to Liquid Ratio Testing
    Air to liquid ratio testing measures the effectiveness of vapor recovery systems. Air to liquid ratio testing measures the volume of air compared to the volume of dispensed liquid. The derived product is the result of comparing the amount of…
  • Aircraft Refueler
    An aircraft refueler is an intermediary truck.  Fuelers service aircraft on the tarmac by pumping fuel. To clarify, the aircraft refueler is not a fuel truck.  The components on an aircraft refueler truck include a pump and a metering device.…
  • Airdrop
    An airdrop is an access point to a compressed air system. An air connector transfers the compressed air to a piece of equipment that runs off of compressed air. An Airdrop allows access to compressed air.  Many pieces of equipment…
  • Algae Fuels
    Algal biomass is the harvested product from algae growing concerns.  Algae Fuels are the finished product. Algae any of numerous groups of chlorophyll-containing, mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular forms 100 feet (30 meters) or more long, distinguished from plants by the absence of true roots, stems, and leaves and by a lack of nonreproductive cells in the reproductive structures: classified into the six phylaEuglenophyta, Crysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. SOURCE: Dictionary.com Algal biomass is the harvested product from algae growing concerns.  The fuels are…
  • Algae Oilfield Equipment
    The harvesting of algae and algae byproducts for fuel development is a new industry.   This new industry is creating a market for manufacturers of Algae Oilfield Equipment, and Algae harvesting equipment. Consider algae like another organic fuel source.  Algae harvesting…
  • Alternative Fuels
    Any fuel source other than petroleum, propane or natural gas is considered to be an alternative fuel.  Alternative fuels include biomass-based fuels, stored electricity, bio-diesel, vegetable oils, non-fossil methane, hydrogen, and methane. The storage of any fuel and the ability…
  • Ambient Temperature
    Ambient temperature is the outside surrounding temperature of a certain area. Also known as room temperature.   The temperature in extreme levels, either hot or cold can affect the safe operation of equipment.  The ambient temperature of fuel tanks is something…
  • Analog Device
    An analog device or analog technology is comprised of a machine and a  media readout that transmits continuous interpretable data regarding the functioning and output inherent to the machine’s purpose. Analog in most cases is dependant on a mechanical linkage.…
  • Analysis
    .ANALYSIS: The U.S. Department Of Energy defines analysis as the use of methods and techniques of arranging data to: (a) assist in determining what additional data are required; (b) establish consistency, validity, and logic; (c) establish necessary and sufficient events…
  • Anchor
    The term anchor (aside from the nautical definition) is the process of affixing a piece of equipment to a stable platform.  Example: Bolting a fuel dispensing platform and the attached arm to a concrete pad.  Anchoring fuel tanks is a…
  • Annunciator
    A system communicator that gives instructions or system status verbally, or visually rather by a digital or analog display.  Annunciators are also put in place as emergency system communications.  Annunciators are becoming more commonplace in commercial locations to aid people…
  • Anode
    Fuel tank corrosion is a serious issue that needs to be monitored.  Basic electronics come into play in regard to oxidation and corrosion of metal storage tanks. In a material that is an electrical conductor, the flow of electrons will…
  • Anti Siphon Valve
    Antisiphon valves also called shutoff valves are flow control mechanisms put on storage tanks, and storage tank pipelines to stop the flow of fluid.  In most cases, these mechanisms are controlled electromagnetically causing an open/close state that is controlled by…
  • Anticipated Operational Occurence Or Event
    ANTICIPATED OPERATIONAL OCCURRENCE OR EVENT. An abnormal event that is expected to occur during the lifetime of the facility (e.g., small spills, small fires). SOURCE: DOE Equipment will eventually breakdown.  …
  • Appointing Official
    APPOINTING OFFICIAL. A designated authority responsible for assigning Accident Investigation Board Type A and Type B investigations, with responsibilities as prescribed Department of Energy guidelines.  DOE Accidents that need investigation will have someone designated to do it.…
  • Approved
    Acceptable to an organization, office, or regulatory agency or an individual responsible for approving equipment, materials, procedures, and plans.  In many cases, the regulatory approval process can be daunting.  Getting to “approved” is always a good thing. Projects that involve…
  • Aquifer
    An underground topographical area that contains a source of potable water that supplies springs and wells. Aquifers are to be considered heavily when a construction project is being planned that involves storage tanks.  Most fuel tank installation contractors will understand…
  • Archimedes Principal
      Accepting the potential power of natural groundwater to move or float heavy metal objects requires extensive planning and engineering.  All of this is to prevent leaking underground storage tanks. Archimedes‘ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is…
  • Aromatics
    Aromatics are Hydrocarbon Chemicals that are blended into gasoline at the refinery point. The use of aromatics is for creating different octane ratings for commercial sales. Examples of aromatics also called the BTX chemicals to include benzene, xylene, and toluene.…
  • Asphalt Batching Plant
    Asphalt is a mined hydrocarbon that is refined and heated to high temperatures to liquefy it.  The Asphalt Batching Plant is where the application of heat greater than 600ºF is applied to it.  From that plant, the product is distributed…
  • Asphaltic Coating
    Asphaltic Coatings are products derived and refined from mined asphalt. These coatings were as tank corrosion protection. A layer of asphaltic coating placed on the bottoms of tanks added protection from errant groundwater. The Environmental Protection Agency deemed Asphalt coatings…
  • Aspirator
    Gasoline vapor recovery systems or aspirators are used to capture vaporized product at the nozzle. Aspirators use suction to capture vaporized product.  Captured vapors are returned to the source tank. Vapors that escape the aspirator become lost product. Aspirator systems…
  • Atmospheric Tank
    An Atmospheric Tank holds liquid product at a pressure equal to the ambient atmospheric pressure at its location.   Specifically, the use of a safety vent at the top of all atmospheric tanks keeps the pressure equal to the ambient air…
  • Attended Facility
    An attended facility is a fuel depot or gas station that has employees who help to monitor fuel transfer from delivery trucks to the depot or gas station. Fuel terminals that have no assistants are unassisted fuel terminals. Most states…
  • Autogas
    One of the clean energy initiatives being implemented worldwide is the use of autogas. Municipalities are installing above ground storage tanks in their fleet yards, with all the safety measures. to switch their vehicles to run off of autogas. So,…
  • Automatic Fuel Nozzle
    An automatic fuel nozzle is used to fuel vehicles at gas stations and fuel depots. The fuel loading nozzle automatically stops the flow of transferring gas with the use of a check valve. This feature, coupled with vapor recovery systems,…
  • Automatic Tank Gauge
    Measuring Volume in an Underground Storage Tank An automatic tank gauge is an electronic device that measures inventory and calculates volume in an underground storage tank. Modern tank gauges use electronic sensors that emit ultrasonic waves within the tank.  This…
  • Automotive Lift
    Automotive lifts are hoisting platforms,  That allow service access from the underside of a vehicle.   If your company maintains a vehicle fleet, then fleet safety equipment near lifts should be part of your shop concerns. Automotive lifts are used in…

B

  • B100
    B100 is another name for Biodiesel Fuel. B100 is another high-level biodiesel blend.   It is less common than B20 and lower blends due to a lack of government regulatory incentives and pricing. When using high-level blends several things should be…
  • Backfill
    Oil tank backfill is the material that is used to fill the excavation space around an installed fuel tank and its access pipe system.  Typical backfilling is done with crushed stone, absorbent sand, and pea gravel. Oil tank backfill is…
  • Backpressure
    In a fluid distribution center (any fluid) the resistance created by the pipes, distribution checkpoints, flow meters, and traveled distance is measured against the viscosity of the fluid.  Pump pressures must be set to a value that causes the fluid…
  • Backpressure Test
    A backpressure test is a procedure for installation and testing of a Vapor Recovery Systems at Vehicle fueling depots. A Backpressure test is conducted to prove that displaced vapors are moving from the vehicle’s fuel tank to the station’s storage…
  • Baffles
    Tanker baffles are angled barriers installed in mobile storage tanks used to cut down on the amount of sloshing and movement of transported liquid. Used in Tanker trucks and Tanker Ships. The movement of the heavy liquid inside an oil…
  • Balance Stage Recovery Nozzle
    The balance stage recovery nozzle is a specialized fuel dispensing nozzle that creates a vapor tight connection with the vehicles loading port.  The spout goes in the port and then is surrounded by an airtight connector. Airtight connections when dispensing…
  • Balance System
    A balance system is a method of vapor recovery used in tanker fueling stations.   Fuel vapors must be recovered and stored to stay in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency.  These vapors cannot be dispersed into the atmosphere. The filling…
  • Ball Float Valve
    Ball float valves or check valve is a device that interrupts the flow of liquid product being dispensed at a fuel depot to tanker trucks.   These valves have a two-state function.  It is either open or closed.  When the…
  • Ball Valve
    The ball valve is a common valve in many piping systems used to interrupt, start or redirect the flow of liquids or gases. The valve has a ball inside it that has a hole in its core. The position of…
  • Ballast
    Ballast in the fuel storage industry has to do with the weight of the backfill used around storage tanks.   The proper backfill weight around a storage tank keeps the tank stable and unaffected if groundwater rises.  Ballast in this…
  • Barrel
    A barrel is a term for a standard unit of measurement for the sale of crude products.  1 The fill volume of a barrel is equal to 42 U.S. Gallons or 35 Imperial Gallons. A Barrel = 42 U.S. Gallons…
  • Baseline
    BASELINE. Quantitative expression of projected startup costs, schedule, and technical requirements; the established plan against which the status of resources and the progress of a project can be measured. SOURCE: Department of Energy Think of baseline as an initial assessment…
  • Bathtub Effect
    Underground storage tanks set in less porous, less absorbent, soils are susceptible to rising groundwater.  Those groundwaters may not recede in a normal fashion. Accumulated groundwater can damage the bottom of a tank or even displace it by seeking to…
  • Bedding
    A layer of Environmental Protection Agency Mandated backfill that is placed in the excavated area where an underground storage tank and the associated pipe system is being placed.  Oil Tank Bedding or Backfill is composed of crushed stone, pea gravel,…
  • Bell and Spigot Joint
    Reinforced plastic pipe is joined using a bell and spigot joint.  One end of the joint is tapered and the end that it will be connected to is flared.  The tapered end is inserted into the flared end and then…
  • Benzene
    Benzene is a colorless toxic chemical that is a byproduct of coal tar and is also found in crude oil.  It is a major component of gasoline. Products that use benzene… Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers Industrial solvents Gasoline and…
  • BiFueled Vehicle
    BI-FUELED VEHICLES A Bi-fueled vehicle is configured to run off of two different fuels.  In most cases, those fuels are natural gas and gasoline, however, there are vehicles that are being configured to run on biomass fuels. These vehicles have…
  • Biobutanol
      Biobutanol is a very promising alcohol-based fuel that has higher energy density and less volatility than ethanol. Alcohol fuel is derived from the fermentation of sugars and other bio-masses and it has many commercial uses.  Alcohol fuels have been…
  • Biodiesel
    Biodiesel is produced from various feedstocks including soybeans, oilseed, algae, and animal fats.  It can be blended with diesel fuel for use with diesel-powered vehicles. Scientists are looking for advantages of biodiesel use. According to the Alternative Fuels Data Center…
  • Biomass
    Biomass is any organic material that can be converted into fuel.  Types of Biomass currently include algae, corn, switchgrass, soybeans, sunflower, and canola.  A better summary is “biomass is a potentially renewable energy source derived from plants or animals.” Biomass…
  • Bioremediation
    Bioremediation is Introducing hydrocarbon-eating microbes into contaminated groundwater and soil to reduce the contamination.  The use of microbes to reduce contamination is increasing as the government gets serious about dealing with the multitudes of toxic waste sites around the United…
  • Bladder Tank
    Bladder Tanks are flexible storage tanks that are placed inside of rigid transport or storage tanks.  Bladders are used as a frontline defense to spillage and ground contamination. If the inner bladder tank should rupture or leak, then the rigid,…
  • Blender Pump
    A Blender Pump used in fuel distribution blends the contents from two or more different storage tanks to derive a single fuel blend product for distribution.  This is common in the gasoline refining industry as they change blends to match…
  • Block Valve
    A Block Valve is another name for a shutoff valve.  A block valve stops the flow or changes the direction of product from a storage tank to a dispensing point.   Block valves also called shutoff valves are flow control mechanisms…
  • Blockage Test
    A Blockage Test or nitrogen testing is used in Vapor Recovery Systems to detect liquid in lower areas of piping systems.  Accumulated fluids can block the transfer of return vapor to a storage tank. A measured amount of Nitrogen gas…
  • Bobtail Truck
    A Bobtail Truck that has the faucets and connectors for dispensing in a rear or side compartment that enables the tank portion to be shortened. The load it can carry is smaller but it allows versatility during community deliveries and…
  • Body Belt
    Body belt:A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device. (As of January 1, 1998 body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest…
  • Body Harness
    Body harness or Body Belt. Straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders, with means for attaching it to other…
  • Bollard
    In gasoline stations and fuel depot areas, vertical barriers are installed to prevent accidental vehicle contact with sensitive or flammable areas.  Those vertical posts are called Bollards. Installed bollards are typically plastic coated cement columns that are set deep into…
  • Bond
    Bond has to do with eliminating static electricity around fuel dispensing trucks and depot terminals.  A reel of wire is attached to fuel trucks, with a large alligator clip (similar to a clip on jumper cables)  this clip is connected…
  • Boom
    In the petroleum industry, oil booms are a linked series of floating objects that are positioned around an oil discharge that has leaked to the water.  The boom contains the spill to its enclosed area. Another definition of an oil…
  • Boot Nozzle
    The Fuel Bellows or the Nozzle Boot is an accordion-like device that enables an airtight connection between the distribution nozzle and the fuel port of a tank that is being loaded.  It is sleeve-like and made from a flexible rubber…
  • Bottom Loading
    The trucks used for transferring stored fuel from a storage tank to a vehicle used to be done from an opening built into the top of the storage tank.  More trucks are now bottom loading fuel trucks. The sloshing and…
  • Branded Gasoline
    Branded gasoline has the company name of the refinery that produced it.  Gas stations that are branded like Shell, Mobil, BP, etc. use a product that is refined and delivered to their own same brand stations.   Unbranded gasoline is…
  • Breakaway Connector
    A valve that is placed in between the fuel pump nozzle and the dispenser at gas stations.  If a self-service customer accidentally drives away with the nozzle still placed in the gas tank, the hose will disconnect at the breakaway…
  • Breather Vent
    Fuel storage tanks that contain gasoline and other products need to be vented. A breather vent allows that to happen. Accommodating for expansion and contraction of the stored product due to temperature fluctuations requires venting.   The amount of vapor at…
  • BTL – Biomass to Liquid
    Biomass to Liquid (BTL) are the processes used to convert any biomass into a liquid biofuel.   Different Biomasses use different processes. To convert soybeans to fuel requires a process called transesterification which separates glycerin from the soybean. According to…
  • BTU – British Thermal Unit
    BTU Defined A BTU or British Thermal Unit is the amount of heat applied to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water up 1 more degree Fahrenheit. Heat output comparative measures in the US are logged as BTUs. The U.S.…
  • Building Code
    Building codes ensure that the construction of new buildings stays within municipal guidelines. Compliance with building codes ensure safety, material requirements, and installation guidelines are met.  Building codes, electrical codes, fire codes, and plumbing codes are all mandated by local,…
  • Building Officials And Code Administrators – BOCA
    BOCA is n association of individuals who work in municipalities, and state, and federal levels.   As a group, they study building codes and develop new codes as materials, and building methods change.  Most municipalities adopt the codes that the…
  • Bulk Plant
    A Bulk Plant is a  Distribution and Storage Center for gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel. These are also called Oil terminals or even tank farms. Oil terminals receive refined products from railroad tankers, large truck tankers, and tanker ships.  The…
  • Bulkhead Fitting
    A Bulkhead fitting is a threaded fitting that is installed on a wall of a fuel container or tank. A Bulkhead fitting is typically installed near the bottom of a tank to aid in water drainage. A fitting allows piping…
  • Bung
    The bung stopper is plugged into the opening of a tank or barrel. It prevents flow of the contents. A bung needs to be made of a rigid material that can withstand the internal pressure from the weight and movement…
  • Bung Adapter
    A bung adapter is a specialized stopper for a barrel or tank. It allows the tank to accommodate an added pump or controllable valve to the outlet. (Bung Hole) Specialized Bung adapters allow pumps or other items to be attached…
  • Bunghole
    A Bunghole is the threaded opening on a barrel or tank, where a stopper or valve is placed. There are bunghole adapters for specialized pumps, valves, or flow directors.    …
  • Bunker Fuels
    Bunker Fuels are used for powering Military Class Ships.  Bunker 5 is used by navies. The viscosity of Bunker 5 is very high and that can cause it to solidify in cooler weather. Bunker Fuels are specialized blends designed for…

C

  • Carrier
    (See 49 CFR 171.8.) (A common carrier is a for-hire carrier that holds itself out to serve the general public at published rates. A contract carrier offers transportation services to certain shippers. The carrier uses contracts that specify charges to…
  • Check Valves
    Fueling Depots and gas stations use pump systems that rely on suction. Check Valves, Angle Valves, and Vertical Check Valves are on fuel lines.  These valves make it possible overall to stop the flow of fuel. Check valves are put…
  • Chock
    A wedge or similar device inserted in a space adjacent to an object, to hold the object steady.  Any place you see workers around a stopped truck, you may see a chock placed near the rear wheel.  OSHA requires that…
  • Class I, Class II, Class III Liquids
    A national fire coding classification of liquids, such as gasoline, heating oil, and diesel fuel, as being either flammable liquids or combustible liquids. National Fire Coding Classification For Liquids… Typical Class I liquids include butyl alcohol, diethyl glycol, styrene, and turpentine.…
  • Cleat
    Cleat: A structural block used at the end of a platform to prevent the platform from slipping off its supports. Cleats are also used to provide footing on sloped surfaces such as crawling boards. SOURCE: OSHA Cleats add support and…
  • Competent Person
    Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Source:…
  • Compressed Air System
    Many components of a fluid distribution center use a compressed air system for power. Airside is the whole system. An airside system starts at the air compressor and then goes to the header, the pipes, then the airdrop connection points. …
  • Connector
    Connector: In fall protection a device that is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may…
  • Controlled Access Zone
    Controlled access zone (CAZ): In Fall Protection an area in which certain work (e.g., overhand bricklaying) may take place without guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems, and access to the zone is controlled. SOURCE: OSHA The…
  • Corrosive Zone
    The Corrosive Zone is the name of the first string of casing in a hydrocarbon well. It may be lowered into a hole and drilled into the formations near the surface hole and cemented into place, or it may be…
  • Cross Braces
    Cross braces: In fall protection and scaffolding Two braces which cross each other in the form of an X. SOURCE: OSHA These are crossed support beams in scaffolding.…

D

  • De-Energize
    De-energize: To free from any electric connection and/or electric charge. SOURCE: OSHA Disconnecting or turning off the power source.…
  • Deactivation
    DEACTIVATION. Placing a facility in a stable and known condition including the removal of hazardous and radioactive materials to ensure adequate protection of the worker, public health and safety, and the environment, thereby limiting the long-term cost of surveillance and…
  • Deadman Anchors
    An anchoring system used to prevent underground storage tanks from floating out of the ground when the groundwater rises.  Most Deadman Anchors and concrete weights are made from heavy-duty reinforced concrete. Concrete Deadman Anchors work in concert with the tank’s…
  • Dealer
    A fuel station operator or director  The operator may own and control the land and building of a fuel station but most dealers lease the station from another party without actually owning it. Dealers lease the station as a turnkey…
  • Deceleration Device
    Deceleration device:In fall protection, any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, automatic self-retracting lifeline/lanyard, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit…
  • Deceleration Distance
    Deceleration Distance: The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall length, before stopping, from the point at which the safety device begins to operate. The device is for fall protection. It is measured as…
  • DEF or Diesel Exhaust Fluid
    Diesel Exhaust Fluid, DEF, sometimes known as urea, is a component of catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, which help diesel vehicles meet stringent emission regulations. Diesel Exhaust Fluid, DEF, is sometimes known as urea. Urea is a nitrogen-containing compound that turns…
  • Depth Of Cover
    The depth of backfill and paving placed directly above an underground storage tank. Depth is measured from the top of the tank to the surface. Backfill is a mixture of sand and crushed stone. The depth of cover is the…
  • Diaphragm Pump
    A diaphragm pump is an air-operated device that uses a flexible membrane material to move liquids. Air pressure exerted on one side of the membrane forces the fluid trapped in a chamber on the other side of the membrane through…
  • Dielectric
    A Dielectric is any substance that acts as an insulator against electricity. It is often important to electrically isolate structures from each other. Using sacrificial anodes to protect steel fuel tanks is common.  It is necessary that electric current does…
  • Diesel
    Refined diesel is liquid motor fuel, that is heavier and less volatile than gasoline. Diesel fuel is classified as a combustible fuel, and it is not a flammable liquid. Diesel is widely used as a fuel for trains, trucks, emergency…
  • Diesel Exhaust Fluid Test
    Diesel Fuel should be checked regularly for contaminants that regularly get into the fuel. The Diesel Exhaust Fluid Test It is important to keep Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) free of contamination. Contamination can shorten the life of, or damage, the…
  • Diesel Nozzle
    A Diesel nozzle is fueling that is used to dispense diesel fuel.  Diesel fuel is in a separate underground fuel tank than the other blends.…
  • Digital Manometer
    A manometer is a pressure measuring device that uses a transducer to convert pressure to a corresponding voltage.  A digital manometer indicates pressure measurements using a digital display. A digital manometer does not have the “needle readout”…
  • Dike or Containment Berm
    A quick definition: a dike or containment berm is a moat-like structure built around a storage tank used to contain the total contents of the container should it spill. A Dike or Containment berm stops leaks and accidental spills. Containment…
  • Direct Fill
    Direct fill is a method of filling a tank. The delivery hose from the tanker vehicle is connected directly into the fill opening of an individual Fuel Tank. A Direct Fill connection goes from the source to the receiver.…
  • Direct OP or Direct Operation
    Direct OP is Actually, direct operation.  Direct OP is a term that refers to a gas station that is owned and operated by a major oil company.  Oil firm employees run the station for the company owner. Major oil companies…
  • Discrete
    Detached from others or separate. In an electronic motor fuel dispenser, for example, each number that is displayed indicating price and gallonage – is totally separate from all other numbers. Though discrete these numbers are relational, price and gallonage.  …
  • Dispense Point
    Dispense point is a general term for any location where fuel product is delivered from a fluid-distribution system. A dispense point can be an oil bar, a hose reel or a hose with a control handle. Dispensing is done with…
  • Dispenser or Fuel Pump
    A Dispenser is a device that dispenses liquid fuel such as gasoline or compressed natural gas while measuring the amount dispensed.  Other names for dispensers are pumps, gas pumps or fuel pumps. Modern fuel pumps are divided into two parts……
  • Dispenser Pans
    Dispenser pans are containment pans that are positioned beneath a fuel dispenser at facility sites. Containment pans are designed to catch motor fuel that might leak from piping and valves that connect fuel dispensers to the piping system. Captured fuels…
  • Dispenser Platforms
    Dispenser platforms are installed between the dock surface and a fuel dispenser.  The dispenser platforms raise the dispenser cabinet above the dock surface. Dispenser platforms are also referred to as gas islands. The created space under the dispenser is used…
  • Dispensing Pump
    Modern fuel dispensing pumps do not pump the fuel as they did in years gone by.  The pump that sends the gasoline from the underground tank at the gas station to the car is remote from the nozzle. The history…
  • Distillate
    The distillate is the product obtained from the condensation of vapors during the distillation process. Most petroleum products – gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuel–are, to some degree, are distillates. Heating crude oil to a point where it vaporizes…
  • Divestiture
    Divestiture is a political term.   It is the forced break up of major oil companies. Divestiture can take two forms: horizontal and vertical. Horizontal divestiture would force oil companies to divest of their owned non-oil business, like chemical, coal, and…
  • Divorcement
    A Divorcement is a political movement that wants to change, state and federal laws. The movement seeks to prohibit companies from doing business end to end. The movement believes an oil company engaged in the exploration, refining, and production, of…
  • Dock
    A dock is a generic term for a platform where nautical or truck vessels can temporarily pull up to provide convenient loading and unloading of fuel.  Also called a loading dock. A Fuel loading dock is found on the waterfront…
  • Double Bottomed Tank
    A Double Bottomed Tank is a vertical aboveground tank. It has bottoms separated by an internal space. If a leak should develop in the bottom of the primary tank, the released liquid will enter the intermediary space. A double-bottomed tank…
  • Double Tap Bushing
    A Double Tap bushing is a fitting widely used in petroleum operations. The bushing is flat, round fitting.  It is threaded on its outside circumference. In the center of the fitting is a threaded hole.   This center hole is threaded…
  • Double Wall Piping
    Double wall piping is a pipe within a pipe.  If the inner pipe should happen to leak the outer pipe provides containment. It is also possible, to monitor the space between the inner and outer pipes. With monitoring, the presence…
  • Double Wall Tank
    A storage tank that is essentially a tank within a tank is a double wall tank.  Double Wall Tanks provide extra prevention to contain any leakage. With a double wall tank, if the inner tank was to develop a leak,…
  • Downstream Operation
    Downstream operation, is a term in the petroleum industry. Moreover, downstream operation stops for crude oil include refineries, oil terminals, a bulk plant, and eventually gas stations. Any process applied to crude oil is a downstream operation.  …
  • Dressler Coupling
    The Dressler coupling is a pipe fitting used to connect two sections of pipe without the use of threads. The Dressler Coupling is also known as a slip joint. It is a connecting sleeve. In gas stations, the Dressler Coupling…
  • Drip Leg
    A drip leg is a pipe or tube designed to capture condensation inside a compressed air system. A built-in valve allows the condensation to flow out of the system. A drip leg is on the air header or airdrop.  …
  • Drive Off
    A drive off is a fueling station term for a customer who drives away without paying for the product. A drive off is also when the customer drives away with a gas nozzle still in the tank.…
  • Driveway
    A driveway is the paved portion of a gas station. The more pumps a gas station has the larger the driveway is.…
  • Drop
    Drop is an oil trade term used to describe the delivery of motor fuel to an underground storage tank. The delivery of a product, by pump or gravity, from a tanker to a storage tank is a drop. A drop…
  • Drop Tube
    A drop tube is an aluminum tube, positioned inside the fill pipe of an underground storage tank. The purpose of the drop tube is to reduce turbulence when the tank is being filled. The drop tube prevents sloshing and splashing…
  • Drum Cover
    A Drum cover is a steel disc with a rim. It is designed to sit on top of a standard open-head, 55-gallon drum. A drum cover with an adapter allows the addition of a pump. The drum cover includes a…
  • Drybreak
    Drybreak devices are designed with features that prevent the operator from disconnecting the assembly before he has closed the internal valve. An installed drybreak prevents the product from spilling when loading arms are disconnected. Using a drybreak is a good…
  • Duty Cycle
    A duty cycle is the percentage of time that a piece of equipment is designed to operate. A pump designed to operate for a half an hour out of 60 minutes has a 50 percent duty cycle.  …

E

  • Electrical Arc
    ARC-FLASH HAZARD. A dangerous condition associated with the release of energy caused by an electric arc. Source: The U.S. Department Of Energy – DOE An arc flash can be seen from a long distance.  …
  • Electrical Hazard
    ELECTRICAL HAZARD. A dangerous condition such that contact or equipment failure can result in electric shock, electrocution, arc flash burn, thermal burn, or blast.  Source Department Of Energy Electrical hazards cause more than 300 deaths and 4,000 injuries each year among the U.S. workforce. Electrocution is sixth…
  • Electrical Isolation

F

  • Fabricated Frame Scaffold
    Fabricated frame scaffold: A scaffold consisting of platforms supported on fabricated end frames with integral posts, horizontal bearers, and intermediate members. There are more modern scaffolding options these days. Fabricated frame scaffolds are the most common type of scaffold because…
  • Facility
    FACILITY. Land, buildings, and other structures, their functional systems and equipment, and other fixed systems and equipment installed therein, including site development features outside the plant, such as landscaping, roads, walks, and parking areas, outside lighting and communication systems, central…
  • Failure
    Failure: Load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded. SOURCE: OSHA Failure is a component breakage.…
  • Fall Prevention Anchors
    Fall Prevention Anchorage: A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices. SOURCE: OSHA Protection against falls for workers is a great policy.    …
  • Free Fall
    Freefall: In Fall Protection The act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. SOURCE: OSHA Freefall is falling before the fall protection system kicks in.        …
  • Freefall Distance
    Freefall distance: The vertical displacement between the onset of the fall and just before the fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide…
  • Fuel Transfer Systems
    Airports have fuel transfer systems that push fuel from remote storage tanks to aircraft on the ground.  The jet fuel storage tanks can be miles away from the airport. Fuel transfer systems get the fuel to a loading port. There…
  • Fuel Transport Safety – Types of Tankers
    Fuel transport safety is a major concern that any company that moves and distributes fuel is concerned with.  Various cargos require different types of tankers to safely get the cargo over the road within the Department Of Transportation requirements.  Fuel…

G

  • Guardrail System
    Guardrail system: Used in fall protection.  A barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. SOURCE: OSHA Guardrails save time lost, from injuries…  …
  • Guiding Principals
    GUIDING PRINCIPLES. Conditions for performance of work that a Safety Management System must address. The guiding principles for the Safety Management System Policy (DOE P 450.4) are Line Management Responsibility for Safety, Clear Roles and Responsibilities, Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities,…

H

  • Hazard
    HAZARD. A source of danger (i.e., material, energy source, or operation) with the potential to cause illness, injury, or death to a person or damage to a facility or to the environment (without regard to the likelihood or credibility of…
  • Hoist
    Hoist: A manual- or power-operated mechanical device to raise or lower a suspended scaffold. SOURCE: OSHA A Hoist gets heavy stuff to the top of a platform or structure.…
  • Hole
    Hole: OSHA considers a  gap or void 2 inches (5.1 cm) or more in its least dimension, in a floor, roof, or other walking/working surface.to be a hole SOURCE: OSHA A hole is a trip and fall hazard.…
  • Hopper Car
    A hopper car (US) or hopper wagon (UIC) is a type of railroad freight car used to transport loose bulk commodities such as coal, ore, grain, and track ballast. Two main types of hopper car exist: covered hopper cars, which…
  • Hydraulic Fracturing – Fracking
    Hydraulic fracturing, informally referred to as “fracking,” is a process that injects sand, plus water and chemicals (called slickwater) under high pressure and at fast volumes through a surface well and into bedrock formation. The pressure and volume fracture the…

I

  • Industrial Hygiene
    INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE. The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace that may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort and inefficiency among…
  • Industrial Stairs Landing
    Landing: Regarding Industrial stairs. A platform at the end of a flight of stairs. SOURCE: OSHA Landings can be used to change stair directions.…
  • Infeasible
    Infeasible: Impossible to perform the construction work using a conventional fall protection system (i.e., guardrail system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system) or technologically impossible to use any one of these systems to provide fall protection. SOURCE: OSHA…

J

  • Jet Fuel
    Jet A-1 is used by planes with gas turbine engines.  Jet fuel is exceptionally volatile, transparent, and kerosene-based. This jet fuel must be dispensed, at a refueling station that has a higher temperature than -47C. Most Jet A-1 refiners make…
  • Job Analysis
    JOB ANALYSIS. A systematic method used in obtaining a detailed listing of the tasks of a specific job. SOURCE: Department of Energy Used when estimating costs for a proposal.…

L

  • Ladder Stand
    Ladder stand: A mobile, fixed-size, self-supporting ladder consisting of a wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs. SOURCE: OSHA A portable height solution.…
  • Lanyard
    Lanyard: In Fall prevention a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage. SOURCE: OSHA Lanyards connect…
  • Life Cycle
    LIFE CYCLE. The life of an asset from planning through acquisition, maintenance, operation, and disposition. Every piece of equipment or asset has a life cycle. SOURCE: The U.S. Department of Energy Every piece of equipment or company asset has a…
  • Lifeline
    Lifeline: In fall protection a lifeline is a component consisting of a flexible line connected vertically to an anchorage at one end (vertical lifeline), or connected horizontally to anchorages at both ends (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means…
  • Low Slope Roof
    Low-slope roof: In fall protection a low slope roof is a roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 to 12 (vertical to horizontal). SOURCE: OSHA A low sloped roof is almost level.…
  • Lower Levels
    Lower levels: In fall protection lower levels are those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment,…

M

  • Maintenance
    MAINTENANCE. Day-to-day work that is required to sustain property in a condition suitable for it to be used for its designated purpose and includes preventive, predictive, and corrective (repair) maintenance. SOURCE: Department Of Energy Maintenance keeps everything running.…

N

  • Noncombustible
    NONCOMBUSTIBLE. A material that in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat, as defined by fire protection industry standards…

O

  • O Ring
    Buna N is Nitrile.  Nitrile is a rubbery material that is used to make O Ring sealant barriers.  It is a synthetic rubber that stands up well to corrosion. An O ring is made from nitrile or Buna-N    …
  • Occupancy
    OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building, or portion thereof, is used or intended to be used. For DOE facilities, the occupancy classification for purposes of determining construction, protection and area limitations should be as determined under the provisions of…
  • Oil Drum
    An oil drum is a cylindrical container for storing and transporting oils and greases. A typical drum can contain 55 gallons of oil or about 410 pounds of grease. An oil drum holds 55 gallons.…
  • Other 2-Axle 4-Tire Vehicles (Truck)
    Includes vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. DOT…

P

  • Performance Degredation
    PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION. Failure or degradation of a facility, process, system or component that reduces the reliability of critical components of the facility whose loss or degradation prevents the system from performing its intended function. Performance degradation does not include: (1)…
  • Planned Maintenance
    PLANNED MAINTENANCE. Preventive, or seasonal maintenance activities performed prior to structure, system, and component failure which may be initiated by predictive or periodic maintenance results, through vendor recommendations, or by experience/lessons learned. These include actions such as scheduled cold weather…
  • Proppant
    Hydraulic fracturing proppants A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. Many other materials have been used as proppants, including…
  • Proppant Containers
    Proppant containers are standardized containers used to get sand, typically frac sand from the mine to the well-head. What is the purpose of frac sand? Called proppant,  the sand is used in the hydraulic fracturing process (known as “fracking”) to…

Q

  • Qualified Person
    QUALIFIED PERSON. A person who by reason of experience or training is familiar with the operation to be performed and the hazards involved. SOURCE: Department Of Energy Certain jobs require qualifications.  Truck Drivers, Hazardous Materials Driver, Ship Captains  …

R

  • Record Keeping
    RECORD. Or Record keeping.  A completed document or other media that provides objective evidence of an item, service, or process.  Records must be continuously maintained and added to stay in compliance with most government agencies. SOURCE: The Department Of Energy…

S

  • Safety Analysis or Safety Inspection
    SAFETY ANALYSIS OR SAFETY INSPECTION A documented process A. to provide systematic identification of hazards within a given operation; B. to describe and analyze the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards; and C. to…
  • Scaffold Brace
    Scaffold Brace: A rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member, or to a building or structure. SOURCE: OSHA A Brace strengthens the support capability of scaffolding.…
  • Should
    Should:Recommended.…
  • Shut off Valve
    A shut off valve has a built-in mechanism that stops the downstream flow of liquid.  With a shut off valve, you are able to stop the flow to areas of a pipeline.   This clears an area in the pipeline for…
  • Slickwater
    Slickwater or slick water fracturing is a hydro-fracturing method to increase fluid flow by adding chemicals to the water. The chemical additives are engineered to have a consistant and predictable property to control viscosity, friction, formation-compatibility, and fluid-loss control. This…
  • Spill Berm
    An edge barrier, or small wall along a paved surface near a storage tank that is designed to contain errant liquid from leakages.  A Spill Containment Berm is used in fuel depots and fueling stations.  A spill containment berm is…

T

  • Tanker
    An oceangoing ship designed to haul liquid bulk cargo in world trade. Imported Crude Oil arrives by tankers.…
  • Technical Support
    TECHNICAL SUPPORT. The engineering, design, computer support, training, warehousing, fabrication, procurement, operations, quality assurance, material, and parts control and availability, specialized inspections, planning, or other such support needed to develop and implement a successful maintenance management program that provides an…

U

  • Uninteruptable Power Supply
    UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS). A power supply that provides automatic, instantaneous power, without delay or-transients, on the failure of normal power. It can consist of batteries or full-time operating generators. It can be designated as standby or emergency power depending…

V

  • Volatile Chemicals
    VOLATILE CHEMICALS. Chemicals that can be readily vaporized at a relatively low temperature. SOURCE: Department of Energy The Department of Energy has many guidelines regarding the handling of Volatile Chemicals.  …

W

  • Work Control Document
    WORK CONTROL DOCUMENT. A procedural document used by facility personnel to perform activities such as maintenance, inspections, testing, or other work. SOURCE: Department Of Energy The work control document is a request for something to be done.…