SafeRack’s Industrial Index

A

  • Abandonment Costs for Fracking Companies
    When it comes time to end operations at a well site or production facility, abandonment costs for fracking companies are incurred to cap a well and relocate or remove existing equipment and then to remediate the surface to as close…
  • Abatement – OSHA Term
    Abatement is the correction of the safety or health hazard/violation that led to an OSHA citation. – Source OSHA If your company has received a violation notification from OSHA then a company must go through OSHA’s abatement process to rectify…
  • Access Roads
    Road crew building an access road. Access roads to well sites connect a site to the main road.  Access roads usually have a barrier gate at the head end to control access to the well after hours.  In some cases,…
  • Accident Analyses
    ACCIDENT ANALYSES. For the purposes of properly implementing DOE O 5480.21, the term accident analyses refer to those bounding analyses selected for inclusion in the safety analysis report included in workplace safety training. These analyses refer to design basis accidents…
  • Accountability
    ACCOUNTABILITY. The state of being liable for explanation to a superior DOE official for the exercise of authority. Ultimate accountability is to the Secretary, who may delegate authority or share responsibility for specified actions. The delegate of authority is accountable…
  • Active and Inactive Faults
    According to Definitions Active and Inactive faults are defined as: Active fault – An active fault is a fault that is likely to have another earthquake sometime in the future. Faults are commonly considered to be active if there has…
  • Additions And Modifications
    ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS: Changes to a structure, system, and component (SSC) for reasons other than increasing resistance to natural phenomena hazards. SOURCE: U.S. Department Of Energy Modifications to enhance the safety level for employees can keep your company within OSHA…
  • Administrative Controls
    ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS. Provisions relating to organization and management, procedures, recordkeeping, assessment, and reporting necessary to ensure the safe operation of a facility like a bulk plant. Source: U.S. Department of Energy Keeping an eye on compliance requirements is paramount. Staying…
  • Adsorption
    Adsorption happens when atoms or molecules form and stick to a surface area of different molecules and atoms.   Byproduct atoms and molecules are commonly found in liquid, dissolved solids, or in gas forms. Wet sand is a common example…
  • AHJ Authority Having Jurisdiction
      Authority Having Jurisdiction Definition or AHJ: An entity that has the authority, responsibility, and administrative control for developing, implementing, maintaining, and overseeing the qualification process within its organization or jurisdiction. This may be a state or federal agency, training…
  • Air Eliminators
    Air eliminators are installed components. They are placed in fuel and liquid transfer systems like in the renewable diesel loading operations. Eliminators (or loading arm strainers) remove the accumulated air in hoses and tanks.   Oxygen, in any transfer or…
  • Air Header
    The air header is the main trunk line in a compressed air system that carries compressed air from the compressor to airdrops located in a plant, or distribution center like a petrochemical loading terminal.  Many pieces of pneumatic equipment are…
  • Air Soap Testing
    Air Soap Testing is conducted on storage tanks and their pipelines before the container is set permanently or to maintain road tanker safety. This test is the best chance to determine if welds, joints, and the tank itself do not…
  • Air Sparging
    Air sparging is a method for eliminating contaminants from soil and underground water sources.   Fuel spills and storage tank leaks contribute to water and soil contamination. Air sparging involves injecting large quantities of compressed air beneath the water source.…
  • Air Stripper
    An air stripper treats contaminated water that is usually caught by deck sumps. The stripper processes contaminated water into steam vapors. Filtering the contaminated steam vapors to become clean water is the next step, usually done with top loading arms.…
  • Air to Liquid Ratio Testing
    Air to liquid ratio testing measures the effectiveness of vapor recovery systems. Air to liquid ratio testing measures the volume of air compared to the volume of dispensed liquid. The derived product is the result of comparing the amount of…
  • Aircraft Refueler
    An aircraft refueler is an intermediary truck.  Fuelers service aircraft on the tarmac by pumping fuel in the aviation industry. To clarify, the aircraft refueler is not a fuel truck.  The components on an aircraft refueler truck include a pump…
  • Airdrop
    An airdrop is an access point to a compressed air system. An air connector transfers the compressed air to a piece of equipment that runs off of compressed air. An Airdrop allows access to compressed air.  Many pieces of equipment…
  • Algae Fuels
    Algal biomass is the harvested product from algae growing concerns.  Algae fuels are the finished product. Algae Any of the numerous groups of chlorophyll-containing, mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular forms 100 feet (30 meters) or longer. These are distinguished from plants by the absence of true roots, stems, and leaves and by a lack of nonreproductive cells in the reproductive structures: classified into the six phyla: Euglenophyta, Crysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. SOURCE: Dictionary.com Algae fuels are now under consideration as an alternative…
  • Algae Oilfield Equipment
    The harvesting of algae and algae byproducts for fuel development is a new industry.  This new industry is creating a market for manufacturers of Algae Oilfield Equipment, and Algae Harvesting Equipment. Consider algae-like another organic fuel source.  Algae harvesting equipment…
  • Alternative Fuels
    Any fuel source other than petroleum, propane, or natural gas is considered to be an alternative fuel.  Alternative fuels include biomass-based fuels like algae fuels, stored electricity, bio-diesel, vegetable oils, non-fossil methane, hydrogen, and methane. The storage of any fuel…
  • Ambient Temperature
    Ambient temperature is the outside surrounding temperature of a certain area. Also known as room temperature.   The temperature at extreme levels, either hot or cold can affect the safe operation of equipment.  The ambient temperature of fuel tanks is something…
  • Analog Device
    An analog device or analog technology is comprised of a machine and a  media readout that transmits continuous interpretable data regarding the functioning and output inherent to the machine’s purpose. Analog in most cases is dependant on a mechanical linkage.…
  • Annunciator
    A system communicator that gives instructions or system status verbally, or visually rather by a digital or analog display.  Annunciators are also put in place as emergency system communications.  Annunciators are becoming more commonplace in commercial locations to aid people…
  • Anode
    Fuel tank corrosion is a serious issue that needs to be monitored.  Basic electronics come into play in regard to oxidation and corrosion of metal storage tanks. In a material that is an electrical conductor, the flow of electrons will…
  • Anti Siphon Valve
    Antisiphon valves also called shutoff valves are flow control mechanisms put on storage tanks, and storage tank pipelines to stop the flow of fluid.  In most cases, these mechanisms are controlled electromagnetically causing an open/close state that is controlled by…
  • Anticipated Operational Occurrence or Event
    ANTICIPATED OPERATIONAL OCCURRENCE OR EVENT. An abnormal event that is expected to occur during the lifetime of the facility (e.g., small spills, small fires). For spillages, you must have an emergency spill response plan. SOURCE: DOE Equipment will eventually breakdown.…
  • Appointing Official
    APPOINTING OFFICIAL. A designated authority responsible for assigning Accident Investigation Board Type A and Type B investigations, with administrative control and accountability as prescribed Department of Energy guidelines. Accidents that need investigation will have someone designated to do it. Gas…
  • Aquifer
    An underground topographical area that contains a source of potable water that supplies springs and wells. Aquifers are to be considered heavily when a construction project is being planned that involves storage tanks, including fuel transport tankers.  Most fuel tank…
  • Archimedes Principle
      Accepting the potential power of natural groundwater to move or float heavy metal objects requires extensive planning and engineering.  All of this is to prevent leaking underground storage tanks. Archimedes‘ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is…
  • Aromatics
    Aromatics are Hydrocarbon Chemicals that are blended into gasoline at the refinery point. The use of aromatics is for creating different octane ratings for car industry commercial sales. Examples of aromatics also called the BTX chemicals to include benzene, xylene,…
  • Asphalt Batching Plant
    Asphalt is a mined hydrocarbon that is refined and heated to high temperatures to liquefy it.  The Asphalt Batching Plant is where the application of heat greater than 600ºF is applied to it.  From that plant, the product is distributed…
  • Asphaltic Coating
    Asphaltic Coatings are products derived and refined from mined asphalt. These coatings were as tank corrosion protection. A layer of asphaltic coating placed on the bottoms of tanks added protection from errant groundwater. The Environmental Protection Agency deemed Asphalt coatings…
  • Aspirator
    Gasoline vapor recovery systems or aspirators are used to capture vaporized product at the balance stage recovery nozzle. Aspirators use suction to capture vaporized product.  Captured vapors are returned to the source tank. Vapors that escape the aspirator become a…
  • Atmospheric Tank
    An Atmospheric Tank holds liquid product at a pressure equal to the ambient atmospheric pressure at its location.   Specifically, the use of a safety vent at the top of all atmospheric tanks keeps the pressure equal to the ambient air…
  • Attended Facility
    An attended facility is a fuel depot or gas station that has employees who help to monitor fuel transfer from delivery trucks to the depot or gas station. Fuel terminals that have no assistants are unassisted fuel terminals. Most states…
  • Autogas
    One of the clean energy initiatives being implemented worldwide is the use of autogas. Municipalities are installing above-ground storage tanks in their fleet yards, with all the safety measures. to switch their vehicles to run off of autogas. So, what…
  • Automatic Fuel Nozzle
    An automatic fuel nozzle is used to fuel vehicles at gas stations and fuel depots. The fuel loading diesel nozzle automatically stops the flow of transferring gas with the use of a check valve. This feature, coupled with vapor recovery…
  • Automatic Tank Gauge
    Measuring Volume in an Underground Storage Tank An automatic tank gauge is an electronic device that measures inventory and calculates volume in an underground storage tank often protected by a backfill. Modern tank gauges use electronic sensors that emit ultrasonic…
  • Automotive Lift
    Automotive lifts are hoisting platforms. That allows service access from the underside of a vehicle.   If your company maintains a vehicle fleet, then fleet safety equipment near lifts should be part of your shop concerns. Automotive lifts are used in…

B

  • B100
    B100 is another name for Biodiesel Fuel. B100 is another high-level biodiesel blend used as an alternative fuel.  It is less common than B20 and lower blends due to a lack of government regulatory incentives and pricing. When using high-level…
  • Backfill
    Oil tank backfill is the material that is used to fill the excavation space around an installed fuel tank and its access pipe system.  Typical backfilling is done with crushed stone, absorbent sand, and pea gravel. Oil tank backfill is…
  • Backflow
    Backflow spill containment – During well testing, backflow happens when fluid flows from one zone to another due to the well pressure being higher than other zone pressures.  Backflow waters in fracking are recovered and transferred to remediation areas for…
  • Backpressure
    In a fluid distribution center (any fluid) the resistance created by the pipes, distribution checkpoints, flow meters, and traveled distance is measured against the viscosity of the fluid.  Pump pressures must be set to a value that causes the fluid…
  • Backpressure Test
    A backpressure test is a procedure for the installation and testing of a Vapor Recovery Systems at vehicle fueling depots. Testing for backpressure is conducted to prove that displaced vapors are moving from the vehicle’s fuel tank to the station’s…
  • Baffles
    Used in tanker trucks and tanker ships, baffles are angled dividers with holes that slow down the front-to-back sloshing and movement of the tanker’s liquid cargo. The movement of heavy liquid cargo inside an oil tanker truck or ship can…
  • Balance Stage Recovery Nozzle
    The balance stage recovery nozzle is a specialized fuel dispensing nozzle that creates a vapor-tight connection with the vehicle’s loading port.  The spout goes in the port and then is surrounded by an airtight connector. Airtight connections when dispensing fuel…
  • Balance System
    A balance system is a method of vapor recovery used in tanker fueling stations.   Fuel vapors must be recovered and stored to stay in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency.  These vapors cannot be dispersed into the atmosphere. The filling…
  • Ball Float Valve
    Ball float valves or check valve is a device that interrupts the flow of liquid product being dispensed at a fuel depot to tanker trucks.   These valves have a two-state function.  It is either open or closed.  When the…
  • Ball Valve
    The ball valve is a common valve in many piping systems used to interrupt, start, or redirect the flow of liquids or gases. These valves are often used in dry disconnect couplings used to handle hazardous chemicals. The valve has…
  • Ballast
    oil tank backfill ballast Ballast in the fuel storage industry has to do with the weight of the backfill used around storage tanks.  The proper backfill weight around a storage tank keeps the tank stable and unaffected if groundwater rises. …
  • Barrel
    A barrel is a term for a standard unit of measurement for the sale of crude products.  The fill volume of a barrel is equal to 42 U.S. Gallons or 35 Imperial Gallons. A Barrel = 42 U.S. Gallons Barrel…
  • Baseline
    BASELINE. Quantitative expression of projected startup costs, schedule, and technical requirements; the established plan against which the status of resources and the progress of a project can be measured. SOURCE: Department of Energy Think of baseline as an initial assessment…
  • Basic Steel Products – OSHA Term
    The basic steel products industry is involved in manufacturing hot metal, pig iron, and silvery pig iron from iron ore and iron and steel scrap. It also converts pig iron, scrap iron, and scrap steel into steel, and hot rolls…
  • Bathtub Effect
    Underground storage tanks set in less porous, less absorbent, soils are susceptible to rising groundwater.  Those groundwaters may not recede in a normal fashion. Accumulated groundwater can damage the bottom of a tank or even displace it by seeking to…
  • Bedding
    A layer of Environmental Protection Agency mandated backfill that is placed in the excavated area where an underground storage tank and the associated pipe system is being placed.  Oil Tank Bedding or Backfill is composed of crushed stone, pea gravel,…
  • Bell and Spigot Joint
    The reinforced plastic pipe is joined using a bell and spigot joint.  One end of the joint is tapered and the end that it will be connected to is flared.  The tapered end is inserted into the flared end and…
  • Benzene
    Benzene is a colorless toxic chemical that is a byproduct of coal tar and is also found in crude oil.  It is a major component of gasoline. Products that use benzene… Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers Industrial solvents Gasoline and…
  • BiFueled Vehicle
    BI-FUELED VEHICLES A bi-fueled vehicle is configured to run off of two different fuels.  In most cases, those fuels are natural gas and gasoline, however, there are vehicles that are being configured to run on biomass fuels. These vehicles have…
  • Biobutanol
    Biobutanol is a very promising alcohol-based fuel that has higher energy density and less volatility than ethanol. Alcohol fuel is derived from the fermentation of sugars and other biomasses and it has many commercial uses.  Alcohol fuels have been used…
  • Biodiesel
    Biodiesel is produced from various feedstocks including soybeans, oilseed, algae, and animal fats.  It can be blended with diesel fuel for use with diesel-powered vehicles. Scientists are looking for advantages of biodiesel use. According to the Alternative Fuels Data Center:…
  • Biomass
    Biomass is any organic material that can be converted into fuel.  Types of Biomass currently include algae, corn, switchgrass, soybeans, sunflower, and canola.  A better summary is “biomass is a potentially renewable energy source derived from plants or animals.” Biomass…
  • Bioremediation
    Bioremediation is introducing hydrocarbon-eating microbes into contaminated groundwater and soil to reduce the contamination.  The use of microbes to reduce contamination is increasing as the government gets serious about dealing with spill containment and multitudes of toxic waste sites around…
  • Bladder Tank
    Bladder tanks are flexible storage tanks that are placed inside of rigid transport or storage tanks.  Bladders are used as a frontline defense to spillage and ground contamination. If the inner bladder tank should rupture or leak, then the rigid,…
  • Blender Pump
    A blender pump used in fuel distribution blends the contents from two or more different storage tanks to derive a single fuel blend product for distribution.  This is common in the gasoline refining industry as they change blends to match…
  • BLEVE
    BLEVE – boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion This occurs when the pressurized liquid inside of a vessel, such as a propane tank, reaches temperatures higher than that liquid’s boiling point against the ambient temperature. It can also be caused by…
  • Block Valve
    A Block Valve is another name for a shutoff valve.  A block valve stops the flow or changes the direction of the product from a storage tank to a dispensing point.   Block valves also called shutoff valves are flow control…
  • Blockage Test
    A Blockage Test or nitrogen testing is used in Vapor Recovery Systems to detect liquid in lower areas of piping systems, as this bottom loading station.  Accumulated fluids can block the transfer of return vapor to a storage tank when…
  • Blowout
    A blowout occurs when a formation of fluids, like water, gas, oil, or a mixture of the three, flows in an uncontrolled fashion from a well.  Would a large scale containment berm be useful? Remediation at the locations of blowouts…
  • Bobtail Truck
    A type of tanker truck that has the faucets and connectors for dispensing in a rear or side compartment that enables the tank portion to be shortened. The load it can carry is smaller but it allows versatility during community…
  • Body Belt
    Body belt: A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device. (As of January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall…
  • Body Harness
    Body harness or Body Belt. Straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders, with means for attaching it to other…
  • Bollard
    In gasoline stations and fuel depot areas, vertical barriers are installed to prevent accidental vehicle contact with sensitive or flammable areas.  Those vertical posts are called Bollards. Installed bollards are typically plastic-coated cement columns that are set deep into the…
  • Boom
    In the petroleum industry, oil booms are a linked series of floating objects that are positioned around an oil discharge that has leaked to the water.  The boom contains the spill to its enclosed area. Another definition of an oil…
  • Boot Nozzle
    The Fuel Bellows or the Nozzle Boot is an accordion-like device that enables an airtight connection between the distribution nozzle and the fuel port of a tank that is being loaded.  It is sleeve-like and made from a flexible rubber…
  • Bottom Loading
    The trucks used for transferring stored fuel from a storage tank to a vehicle used to be done from an opening built into the top of the storage tank.  More trucks are now bottom loading fuel trucks. The sloshing and…
  • Branded Gasoline
    Branded gasoline has the company name of the refinery that produced it.  Gas stations that are branded like Shell, Mobil, BP, etc. use a product that is refined and delivered to their own same brand stations.   Unbranded gasoline is…
  • Breakaway Connector
    A valve that is placed in between the fuel pump nozzle and the dispenser at gas stations.  If a self-service customer accidentally drives away with the nozzle still placed in the gas tank, the hose will disconnect at the breakaway…
  • Breather Vent
    Fuel storage tanks that contain gasoline and other products need to be vented. A breather vent allows that to happen. Accommodating for expansion and contraction of the stored product due to temperature fluctuations requires venting.   The amount of vapor at…
  • BTL – Biomass to Liquid
    Biomass to Liquid (BTL) is the process used to convert any biomass into a liquid biofuel.   Different Biomasses use different processes. To convert soybeans to fuel requires a process called transesterification which separates glycerin from the soybean. According to…
  • BTU – British Thermal Unit
    BTU Defined A BTU or British Thermal Unit is the amount of heat applied to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water up 1 more degree Fahrenheit. Heat output comparative measures in the US are logged as BTUs. The U.S.…
  • Building Code
    Building codes ensure that the construction of new buildings stays within municipal guidelines. Compliance with building codes ensure safety, material requirements, and installation guidelines are met and followed by BOCA officials.  Building codes, electrical codes, fire codes, and plumbing codes…
  • Building Officials And Code Administrators – BOCA
    BOCA is an association of individuals who work in municipalities, and state, and federal levels.   As a group, they study building codes and develop new codes as materials, and building methods change to encourage worker safety.  Most municipalities adopt…
  • Bulk Plant
    A Bulk Plant is a Distribution and Storage Center for gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel. These are also called oil terminals or even tank farms. Oil terminals receive refined products from railroad tankers, large truck tankers, and tanker ships.  The…
  • Bulkhead Fitting
    A bulkhead fitting is a threaded fitting that is installed on a wall of a fuel container or tank. A bulkhead fitting is typically installed near the bottom of a tank to aid in water drainage. A fitting allows piping…
  • Bung
    The bung stopper is plugged into the opening of a tank or barrel. It prevents the flow of the contents. A bung’s adapter needs to be made of a rigid material that can withstand the internal pressure from the weight…
  • Bung Adapter
    A bung adapter is a specialized stopper for an opening of the barrel or tank. It allows the tank to accommodate an added pump or controllable valve to the outlet. (Bung Hole) Specialized Bung adapters allow pumps or other items…
  • Bunghole
    A Bunghole is the threaded opening on a barrel or tank, where a stopper or valve is placed. There are bunghole adapters for specialized pumps, valves, or flow directors. Steel drum for hazardous chemicals    …
  • Bunker Fuels
    Bunker Fuels are used for powering Military Class Ships.  Bunker 5 is used by navies. The viscosity of Bunker 5 is very high and that can cause it to solidify in cooler weather. Bunker Fuels are specialized blends designed for…

C

  • Check Valves
    Fueling depots and gas stations use pump systems that rely on suction. Check Valves, Angle Valves, and Vertical Check Valves are on fuel lines.  These valves make it possible overall to stop the flow of fuel. Check valves are put…
  • Chock
    A wedge or similar device inserted in a space adjacent to an object, to hold the object steady.  Any place you see workers around a stopped truck, you may see a chock placed near the rear wheel.  OSHA requires that…
  • Class I, Class II, Class III Liquids
    A national fire coding classification of liquids, such as gasoline, heating oil, and diesel fuel, as being either flammable liquids like Naptha or combustible liquids. National Fire Coding Classification For Liquids… Typical Class I liquids include butyl alcohol, diethyl glycol,…
  • Cleat
    Cleat: A structural block used at the end of a platform to prevent the platform from slipping off its supports. Cleats are also used to provide footing on sloped surfaces such as crawling boards, gangways, or work platforms. SOURCE: OSHA…
  • Competent Person
    Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Source:…
  • Compressed Air System
    Many components of a fluid distribution center use a compressed air system for power. Airside is the whole system coming from the air header. An airside system starts at the air compressor and then goes to the header, the pipes,…
  • Compressor Station
    This map shows over 3 million miles of installed natural gas pipelines in the united states. Compressor stations with worker safety additions are built along lengthy natural gas pipelines, these stations compress natural gas to a certain pressure to keep…
  • Confined Spaces – OSHA Term
    Most job sites, plants, and work facilities have areas that OSHA would consider to be a Confined Space. A confined space can require confined space fall protection in areas that were not designed for access yet a worker can get…
  • Connector
    Connector: In fall protection, a device that is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may…
  • Controlled Access Zone
    Controlled access zone (CAZ): In Fall Protection, an area in which certain work (e.g., overhand bricklaying) may take place without guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems, and access to the zone is controlled. SOURCE: OSHA The…
  • Corrosive Zone
    The Corrosive Zone is the name of the first string of casing in a hydrocarbon well. It may be lowered into a hole and drilled into the formations near the surface hole and cemented into place, or it may be…
  • Cross Braces
    Cross braces: In fall protection and scaffolding, two braces which cross each other in the form of an X. SOURCE: OSHA These are crossed support beams in scaffolding. High Quality Osha Compliant Cross Braces…
  • Cryogenic Plant
    Cryogenic Gas Plant A Cryogenic Plant processes natural gas by condensing it to a liquid form using extremely low temperatures. Pipe racks and storage tanks help gas travel. Once chilled the hydrocarbons are then separated so the gas can be…

D

  • De-Energize
    De-energize: To free from any electric connection and/or electric charge. SOURCE: OSHA Disconnecting or turning off the power source. De-Energize – Power Lock Out…
  • Deadman Anchors
    An anchoring system used to prevent underground storage tanks, usually monitored by a gauge, from floating out of the ground when the groundwater rises.  Most Deadman Anchors and concrete weights are made from heavy-duty reinforced concrete. Concrete Deadman Anchors work…
  • Deceleration Device
    Deceleration device: In fall protection, any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, automatic self-retracting lifeline/lanyard, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise…
  • Deceleration Distance
    Deceleration Distance: The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall length, before stopping, from the point at which the safety device begins to operate. The device is for fall protection. It is measured as…
  • Deck Barge Safety – OSHA Term
    It’s not surprising that OSHA has quite a bit to say about safety conditions on barges.  The use of a maritime gangway and barges cross over into many industries and any operation that involves loading and unloading in a maritime…
  • DEF or Diesel Exhaust Fluid
    Diesel Exhaust Fluid, DEF, sometimes known as urea, is a component of catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, which help diesel vehicles meet stringent emission regulations. Diesel Exhaust Fluid, DEF, is sometimes known as urea. Urea is a nitrogen-containing compound that turns…
  • Depth Of Cover
    The depth of backfill and paving placed directly above an underground storage tank. Depth is measured from the top of the tank to the surface and maintained by anchoring systems on the ground. Backfill is a mixture of sand and…
  • Diaphragm Pump
    A diaphragm pump is an air-operated device that uses a flexible membrane material to move liquids in the pump systems. Air pressure exerted on one side of the membrane forces the fluid trapped in a chamber on the other side…
  • Dielectric
    A Dielectric is any substance that acts as an insulator against electricity. It is often important to electrically isolate structures from each other and needs to be de-energized. Using sacrificial anodes to protect steel fuel tanks is common.  It is…
  • Diesel Exhaust Fluid Test
    Diesel Fuel should be checked regularly for contaminants that regularly get into the fuel. The Diesel Exhaust Fluid Test It is important to keep Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) free of contamination. Contamination can shorten the life of, or damage, the…
  • Diesel Nozzle
    A Diesel Nozzle is fueling device that is used to dispense diesel fuel.  Diesel fuel is in a separate underground fuel tank than the other blends. Diesel nozzles are a part of a gas pump widely used in the crude…
  • Digital Manometer
    A manometer is a pressure measuring device that uses a transducer to convert pressure to a corresponding voltage.  A digital manometer indicates pressure measurements using a digital display, coupled with a smart hose system to ensure safety when working with…
  • Dike or Containment Berm
    A fuel tank with a dike or berm built near it. A quick definition: a dike or containment berm is a moat-like structure built around a storage tank used to contain the total contents of the container should it spill.…
  • Direct Fill
    Direct fill is a method of filling a tank. The delivery hose from the tanker vehicle is connected directly to the fill opening of an individual Fuel Tank. A Direct Fill connection goes from the source to the receiver.…
  • Direct OP or Direct Operation
    Direct OP is Actually, direct operation.  Direct OP is a term that refers to a gas station that is owned and operated by a major oil company.  Oil firm employees run the attended facility for the company owner. Major oil…
  • Discrete
    Detached from others or separate. In an electronic motor fuel dispenser, for example, each number that is displayed indicating price and gallonage in modern gas pumps – is totally separate from all other numbers. Though discrete these numbers are relational,…
  • Dispense Point
    Dispense point is a general term for any location where fuel product is delivered from a fluid-distribution system. A dispense point can be an oil bar, a hose reel, or a hose with a control handle that can react with…
  • Dispenser or Fuel Pump
    A dispenser is a device that dispenses liquid fuel such as gasoline or compressed natural gas while measuring the amount dispensed.  Other names for dispensers are pumps, gas pumps, or fuel pumps. Modern fuel pumps are divided into two parts……
  • Dispenser Pans
    Dispenser pans are containment pans that are positioned beneath a fuel dispenser at facility sites. Containment pans are designed to catch motor fuel that might leak from piping and valves that connect fuel dispensers to the piping system. Captured fuels…
  • Dispenser Platforms
    Dispenser platforms are installed between the dock surface and a fuel dispenser.  The dispenser platforms raise the dispenser cabinet above the dock surface. Dispenser platforms are also referred to as gas islands. The created space under the dispenser is used…
  • Dispensing Pump
    Modern fuel dispensing pumps do not pump the fuel as they did in years gone by.  The pump that sends the gasoline from the underground tank at the gas station to the car is remote from the nozzle. The history…
  • Distillate
    The distillate is the product obtained from the condensation of vapors during the distillation process. Most petroleum products – gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuel–are, to some degree, are distillates. Heating crude oil to a point where it vaporizes…
  • Divestiture
    Divestiture is a political term.   It is the forced break up of major oil companies. Divestiture can take two forms: horizontal and vertical. Horizontal divestiture would force direct op oil companies to divest of their owned non-oil business, like chemical,…
  • Divorcement
    A divorcement is a political movement that wants to change, state and federal laws. The movement seeks to prohibit companies from doing business end to end. The movement believes an oil company engaged in the exploration, refining, and production, of…
  • Dock
    A dock is a generic term for a platform where nautical or truck vessels can temporarily pull up to provide convenient loading and unloading of fuel.  Also called a loading dock, where dock gangways that are proven to be invaluable…
  • Double Bottomed Tank
    A Double Bottomed Tank is a vertical aboveground tank. It has bottoms separated by an internal space, a safety feature for huge stand-alone tanks in refineries serves like baffles in oil tankers. If a leak should develop in the bottom…
  • Double Tap Bushing
    A Double Tap bushing is a fitting widely used in petroleum operations. The bushing is flat, round fitting.  It is threaded with an insulator on its outside circumference. In the center of the fitting is a threaded hole.  This center…
  • Double Wall Piping
    Double wall piping is a pipe within a pipe.  If the inner pipe should happen to leak the outer pipe provides containment, used to transport fuel in the petroleum industry. It is also possible, to monitor the space between the…
  • Double Wall Tank
    A storage tank that is essentially a tank within a tank is a double wall tank.  Double Wall Tanks provide extra prevention to contain any leakage. With a double wall tank, if the inner tank was to develop a leak,…
  • Downstream In Oil And Gas Distribution
    Downstream is everything that happens to a hydrocarbon product after it leaves the well. This includes the refining, processing, purifying, and distribution of oil and gas products. It is also at this stage that aromatics are mixed with the final…
  • Downstream Operation
    Downstream operation is a term in the petroleum industry. It works hand-in-hand with the downstream distribution. Moreover, downstream operation stops for crude oil include refineries, oil terminals, a bulk plant, and eventually gas stations. This also applies during the mixture…
  • Dressler Coupling
    The Dressler coupling is a pipe fitting used to connect two sections of pipe without the use of threads, as opposed to other members of the couplers and adapters family. Unlike the threaded double-tap bushing, Dressler coupling connects ordinary end…
  • Drip Leg
    A drip leg is a pipe or tube designed to capture condensation inside a compressed air system. A built-in valve allows the condensation to flow out of the system. A drip leg is on the air header or airdrop. Air…
  • Drive Off
    A drive off is a fueling station term for a customer who drives away without paying for the product. A drive off is also when the customer drives away with a gas nozzle still in the tank. drive off…
  • Driveway
    A driveway is the paved portion of a gas station, where cars can roll into a gas or diesel pump where a car can refuel. There can be bollards installed in the driveway to prevent customers from driving off and…
  • Drop
    Drop is an oil trade term used to describe the delivery of motor fuel to an underground storage tank in gas stations, where fuel pumps dispense into vehicles. The delivery of a product, by pump or gravity, from a tanker…
  • Drop Tube
    A drop tube is an aluminum tube, positioned inside the fill pipe of an underground storage tank. The purpose of the drop tube is to reduce turbulence when the tank is being filled. The drop tube prevents sloshing and splashing…
  • Drum Cover
    A drum cover is a steel disc with a rim. It is designed to sit on top of a standard open-head, 55-gallon drum. It is part of these Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) tote tanks, and to further avoid spills, you…
  • Dry bulk bags
    You may know these as bulk bags or super sacks, jumbo bags, or totes. These can be fabricated from flat interwoven or round woven cloths and can be especially uncoated or coated depending on its purpose. These are transported using…
  • Drybreak
    Drybreak devices are designed with features that prevent the operator from disconnecting the assembly before he has closed the internal valve. An installed drybreak prevents the product from spilling when loading arms are disconnected. Using a drybreak is a good…
  • Duty Cycle
    A duty cycle is the percentage of time that a piece of equipment is designed to operate. For example, the new Safelock gangway system has improved its duty cycle to withstand 100 to 150 trucks per day. A pump designed…

E

  • Electrical Arc
    ARC-FLASH HAZARD. A dangerous condition associated with the release of energy caused by an electric arc. Source: The U.S. Department Of Energy An electrical arc is a current, electric in origin, that is deliberately or inadvertently releasing itself throughout an…
  • Electrical Hazard
    ELECTRICAL HAZARD. A dangerous condition such that contact or equipment failure can result in electric shock, electrocution, arc flash burn, thermal burn, or blast.  Here is the 2020 Department Of Energy safety guide to unexpected electrical exposure. You can plan…
  • Electrical Isolation
    In assuring workplace safety, workers near or operating high energy sources or systems should make all efforts to securely isolate the source of electrical energy, like an electrical arc. The Risk Assessment steps above illustrate how workers can apply isolation…

F

  • Fabricated Frame Scaffold
    Fabricated frame scaffold: A scaffold consisting of platforms supported on fabricated end frames with integral posts, horizontal bearers, and intermediate members. There are more modern scaffolding options these days. Scaffolding In Place Fabricated frame scaffolds are the most common type…
  • Fall Prevention Anchors
    Fall Prevention Anchorage: A secure point of attachment for lifeline cable systems, lanyards, or deceleration devices. SOURCE: OSHA Protection against falls for workers is a great policy. Fall protection on a Gangway    …
  • Flatbed Trailer Types
    Flatbed trailers come in all shapes, sizes, and maximum load capacities. Some of the most common types of flatbed trailers and specialized trucking trailers include: Lowboy Trailers Step Deck Trailers Stretch Double Drop Trailers Removable Gooseneck Trailers (RGN) Conestoga Trailers…
  • Fly Ash
    WHAT IS FLY ASH? Fly ash is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in power plants that generate electricity. Cement loading can be done after fly ash is collected. Electrostatic precipitators or bag filters are used to collect fly ash…
  • Frac Sand
    Hydraulic fracturing injects water, chemicals, and sand. The sand is called frac sand or proppant and combined with the water and chemicals is called slickwater. It’s injected at a fast volume under high pressure through a surface well and into…
  • Fractionation
    The separation process where a quantity of a mixture (gas, solid, liquid, or suspension) is divided during its transition to another phase. It goes into a number of smaller quantities (fractions) in which the composition fluctuates according to a boiling…
  • Freefall Distance
    Freefall distance: The vertical displacement between the onset of the fall and just before the fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide…
  • Fuel Transfer Systems
    Airports have fuel transfer systems that push fuel from remote storage tanks to aircraft on the ground.  The jet fuel storage tanks can be miles away from the airport. Fuel transfer systems get the fuel to a loading port. There…
  • Fuel Transport Safety – Truck Tanker Types
    Fuel transport safety is a major concern that any company that moves and distributes fuel is concerned with.  Various cargos require different types of tankers to safely get the cargo over the road within the Department of Transportation requirements.  Fuel…

G

  • Guardrail System
    Guardrail system: Used in fall protection to prevent accidents.  A barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. SOURCE: OSHA guidelines for guardrails Guardrails save time lost, from injuries… Crossover Steps with OSHA-Compliant Guardrails.  …
  • Guiding Principles
    GUIDING PRINCIPLES. Conditions for performance of work that a Safety Management System must address. The guiding principles for the Safety Management System Policy (DOE P 450.4) are Line Management Responsibility for Safety, Clear Roles and Responsibilities, Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities,…

H

  • Heat Stress
    OSHA has been on a campaign to educate workplaces about the dangers of heat stress and working in the heat. (Both Outdoor and Indoor) According to OSHA: Every year, dozens of workers die and thousands more become ill while working…
  • Hoist
    Hoist: A manual or power-operated mechanical device to raise or lower a suspended scaffold. SOURCE: OSHA A hoist gets heavy stuff to the top of a platform or structure. A Hoist gets heavy stuff to high platforms.…
  • Hopper Car
    A hopper car (US) or hopper wagon (UIC) is a type of railroad freight car used to transport loose bulk commodities such as coal, ore, grain, and track ballast. Two main types of hopper railcars: covered hopper cars, which are…
  • Hydraulic Fracturing – Fracking
    What Is Fracking Hydraulic fracturing, informally referred to as “fracking,” is a process that injects sand, plus water and chemicals (called slickwater) under high pressure and at fast volumes through a surface well and into bedrock formation. The pressure and…

I

  • Industrial Hygiene
    INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE. The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stresses, like heat stress, arising in or from the workplace that may cause sickness, impaired health, and well-being, or significant discomfort…
  • Industrial Stairs Landing
    Landing: Regarding industrial stairs. A platform at the end of a flight of stairs. SOURCE: OSHA Guide for Stairs and Ladders Landings can be used to change stair directions. Stair Landing on Fuel Tank…
  • Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) Tote Tanks
    Perfect for storing and transporting large quantities of liquids, solvents, or granulate substances used in the food, chemical (See more on SafeRack chemical loading solutions), and pharmaceutical industries, intermediate bulk container (IBC) totes tanks are an economical choice for shipping…
  • Isotainers – ISO Tank Containers
    ISO Tank Containers (or ISOtainers) are for transporting bulk liquids. ISO is an acronym for “International Organization for Standardization” the was formed in 1947 to create industrial and commercial standards. ISO tanks are designed and certified to transport a range…

J

  • Jack Stands
    A jack stand is an adjustable height stand that can be adjusted to securely support an automobile, truck, or vehicle when it has been raised. This is often used when performing maintenance. In industrial applications, jack stands are used when…
  • Job Analysis
    JOB ANALYSIS. A systematic method used in obtaining a detailed listing of the tasks of a specific job. Here is the DOE Job Analysis Template. Used when estimating costs for a proposal. Estimating the cost of a job.…

L

  • Ladder Stand
    Ladder stand: A mobile, fixed-size, self-supporting ladder consisting of a wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs. SOURCE: OSHA Guide to Mobile Ladder Stands Safety Check out Saferack’s line of mobile ladders and platforms that are OSHA-compliant and…
  • Life Cycle
    LIFE CYCLE. The life of an asset from planning through acquisition, maintenance, operation, and disposition. Every piece of equipment or asset has a life cycle. That’s why it’s good to check out the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management guide. Every…
  • Lifeline
    Lifeline: In fall protection, a lifeline is a component consisting of a flexible line connected vertically to an anchorage at one end like in the case of a fabricated frame scaffold (vertical lifeline), or connected horizontally to anchorages at both…
  • Low Slope Roof
    Low-slope roof: In fall protection, a low slope roof is a roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 to 12 (vertical to horizontal). SOURCE: OSHA A low sloped roof is almost level. To prevent accidents with low-slope…
  • Lower Levels
    Lower levels: In fall protection, lower levels are those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment,…

M

  • MSDS Sheets – OSHA Term
    OSHA MSDS sheets (Material Safety Data Sheets) are documents that provide workers the proper procedures for handling substances that are in the workplace that may be hazardous. They also act as a mechanism to inform anyone who cares to know…

N

  • NGL – Natural Gas Liquids
    Source: The Role of Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs) in the American Petrochemical Boom Natural gas coming directly from a well contains many natural gas liquids that are commonly removed. In most instances, natural gas liquids (NGLs) have a higher value…
  • Noncombustible
    NONCOMBUSTIBLE. A material that in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat, as defined by fire protection industry standards…

O

  • O Ring
    Made out of Buna-N; that is Nitrile.  Nitrile is a rubbery material that is used to make O Ring sealant barriers.  It is a synthetic rubber that stands up well to corrosion, which makes it a vital part of a…
  • Oil and Gas Extraction – OSHA Term
    Oil and gas workers are in an industry where workplace injuries can occur with great frequency. Health hazards and dangerous work conditions at oil wells can result in serious injury or worse. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration…
  • Oil Drum
    An oil drum is a cylindrical container for storing and transporting oils and greases, often accessed through a drum cover. A typical drum can contain 55 gallons of oil or about 410 pounds of grease. An oil drum holds 55…
  • Other 2-Axle 4-Tire Vehicles (Truck)
    Includes vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. Defined by the Federal Highway Administration: All two-axle, four-tire, vehicles, other than passenger cars. Included in this classification are pickups, panels, vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances, hearses,…

P

  • Performance Degradation
    PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION. Failure or degradation of a facility, process, system, or component that reduces the reliability of critical components of the facility whose loss or degradation prevents the system from performing its intended function. Performance degradation does not include: (1)…
  • Planned Maintenance
    PLANNED MAINTENANCE. Preventive, or seasonal maintenance activities performed prior to structure, system, and component failure which may be initiated by predictive or periodic maintenance results, through vendor recommendations, or by experience/lessons learned. These include actions such as scheduled cold weather…
  • Pneumatic Trailer
    Right now, you’re probably surrounded by items made of plastic—phones, pens, eyeglasses, yogurt cups, you name it. Practically every ounce of that plastic started as a load of resin pellets or powder transported in dry bulk tanks. Not only are…
  • Portable Eyewash Station – OSHA Term
    OSHA requires that convenient fixed or portable eyewash stations be placed in any workplace where corrosive chemicals are used.  Eyewash stations are in place to flush a person’s eyes in case a foreign material like a chemical gets in them.…
  • Powered Industrial Trucks – OSHA Term
    The OSHA term “Powered Industrial Trucks” refers to forklifts. Forklifts are used in just about any industry for moving crates, boxes, containers, and pallets with heavy objects on them. In the field, there are now three types of Forklifts. 1)…
  • Pressure Vessel – OSHA Term
    A Pressure Vessel is a storage tank or vessel that has been built to operate at pressures greater than 15 psi. Some common uses of pressure tanks in industries for storage and transference of materials.  Some examples of pressure tank…
  • Proppant
    Hydraulic fracturing proppants A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand, or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during, or following a fracturing treatment. Many other materials have been used as proppants, including…
  • Proppant Containers
    Stacked Proppant Containers Proppant containers are standardized containers used to get sand, typically frac sand from the mine to the well-head. Frac sand can also be transported and loaded into pneumatic or hopper trucks or railcars What is the purpose…

Q

  • Qualified Person
    QUALIFIED PERSON. A person who by reason of experience or training is familiar with the operation to be performed and the hazards involved. SOURCE: NIMS Guideline for Qualification If judgement errors are made after an accident analyses,an abatement will be…

R

  • Railroad Cars
    The 12 Different Types of Railroad Cars Autorack Transports: Finished vehicles, including cars, trucks, and SUVs. How it is built: Autoracks are made of metal and are entirely enclosed to protect vehicles from the elements. Metal “racks” inside create levels…
  • Rotary union
    A rotary union is sometimes referred to as a rotating union, rotary valve, swivel union, rotor seal, rotary couplings, rotary joint, rotating joints, hydraulic coupling, pneumatic rotary union, air rotary union, electrical rotary union, or vacuum rotary union. Types of…

S

  • Safety Analysis or Safety Inspection
    SAFETY ANALYSIS OR SAFETY INSPECTION – A documented process: A. to provide systematic identification of hazards within a given operation; B. to describe and analyze the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards; and C.…
  • Safety Stand-Down – OSHA Term
    Safety Stand-Downs Worker falls from elevations were again the leading cause of worker death in the Construction Industry in 2017. In 2017, 38% of 971 construction industry fatalities were attributed to falls from elevated heights. – Source: Bureau Of Labor…
  • Scaffold Brace
    Scaffold Brace: A rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member, or to a building or structure. One of the most common types is the fabricated frame scaffold made of modular frames…
  • Scaffolding – OSHA Term
    Scaffolding has been around as long as humans started building up from the ground. OSHA scaffolding regulations define a scaffold as an elevated temporary work platform. Supported scaffolding is made by using one or more elevated platforms that are supported…
  • Shut off Valve
    A shut off valve has a built-in mechanism that stops the downstream flow of liquid. Alternatively known as the block valve. With a shut off valve, you are able to stop the flow to areas of a pipeline.   This clears…
  • Slickwater
    Slickwater or slick water fracturing is a hydro-fracturing method to increase fluid flow by adding chemicals to the water. The chemical additives are engineered to have consistent and predictable properties to control viscosity, friction, formation-compatibility, and fluid-loss control. This engineered…
  • Solenoid Valves
    The Role of Solenoid Valves in Pneumatic and Hydraulic Power Systems What is a Solenoid Valve? A solenoid valve is an electrically operated valve that is mainly used to regulate the flow of air or a liquid in pneumatic and…
  • Spill Berm
    An edge barrier, or small wall along a paved surface near a storage tank that is designed to contain errant liquid from leakages.  A Spill Containment Berm is used in fuel depots and fueling stations.  A spill containment berm is…
  • Storage Tank Access – OSHA Term
    Workers often encounter multiple hazards in petroleum and petrochemical storage tanks. These hazards can include the chance of fire or explosion, asphyxiation, extreme toxicity, entrapment, dangerous falls, and other physical and chemical hazards including, steam, heat, noise, cold and electrical…

T

  • Tanker
    An oceangoing ship designed to haul liquid bulk cargo in world trade. Although the term mostly refers to ships, it can also be used for airplanes and tanker trucks intended for bulk delivery of chemical liquids and gases, particularly in…

U

  • Uninterruptible Power Supply
    UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS). A power supply that provides automatic, instantaneous power, without delay or-transients, on the failure of normal power. It can consist of batteries or full-time operating generators. It can be designated as standby or emergency power depending…

V

  • Volatile Chemicals
    VOLATILE CHEMICALS. Chemicals that can be readily vaporized at a relatively low temperature. SOURCE: Department of Energy The Department of Energy has many guidelines regarding the handling of Volatile Chemicals. Volatile Chemicals  …

W

  • Work Control Document
    WORK CONTROL DOCUMENT. A procedural document used by facility personnel to perform activities such as maintenance, inspections, testing, or other work. SOURCE: Department Of Energy The work control document is a request for something to be done. Work Request Document…
  • Workers Rights – OSHA Term
    OSHA Standards for companies are concerned with the safety of workers in any workplace.  OSHA developed a list of worker’s rights that incorporate into OSHA’s mission. OSHA states… Workers have the right to: Working conditions that do not pose a…