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White liquor is a strong alkaline solution composed of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfide (Na2S) in a mixture of hot water. It is used in the first stage of the Kraft process in which lignin and hemicellulose are separated from the cellulose fiber in wood chips for the production of pulp. The white liquor breaks the bonds between lignin and cellulose. It is called white liquor due to its white opaque color.
White liquor also contains minor amounts of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride and other accumulated salts and non-process elements. During the cooking process white liquor becomes black liquor and is later sent to the recovery process for further processing into green liquor.View Full Text
Typical White Liquor Loading Platform
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Below are some of the loading and unloading solutions for illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs.
White Liquor Loading Arms
White Liquor is typically loaded into railcars or tank trucks via boom supported aluminum or stainless steel loading arms or chemical hoses with a 150# flange connection. The arm or hose will have a top inlet with a control valve to ensure that it is self-draining after use. If using a by-pass arm, the hose is supported along the length of a mechanical loading arm to improve handling. When loading you can install one liquid and one vapor arm, or a 3” boom supported arm with vapour return hose running along the loading arm. Stainless steel camlok fittings or TODO dry breaks are the preferred coupling methods.
For unloading, typically you would use a rigid aluminum or stainless steel self-draining loading arm with EPDM, PTFE or Viton seals. Purge lines can be fitted to the arm, for nitrogen purging. Additional features such as overfill warning indicators or parking latches with proximity sensors can be incorporated into the total system to ensure the arm is correctly stowed when not in use, before any rail movement can occur.
White Liquor Loading Gangways and Safety Cages
A wider access gangway (48″-60″ is preferable) as it helps improve access and egress to and from the vessel. In addition, a wider gangway will reduce the risk of the operator’s PPE getting caught, torn or damaged, and will improve productivity and safety. Powered gangway solutions are also an option, with both hydraulic and pneumatic solutions being commonly used.
Each gangway will be fitted with a two-rail safety cage for the railcar crash box. This will be a centered 6’x6’ safety cage to sit directly over the cashbox. This will provide a safe, secure work environment for your operator when connected to their breathing apparatus
GX FLAT RAMP ACCESS (FRT) GANGWAY
SafeRack’s NEW GX-FRT is a flat ramp model popular with railcars. It features a slip-resistant walk surface and, with the use of the telescoping extension, eliminates gaps on narrow railcars. Learn More
White Liquor Eye Wash/Drench Showers
ANSI guidelines state that an Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55’ (16.8m) from contaminants or hazardous materials.
Eyewash stations need to be on the same horizontal plane with no obstructions.
Therefore, we would propose the installation of a standard combination Drench Shower/Eyewash Unit, which will save limited space and fit easily into any work environment.
White Liquor Spill Containment
Spill containment pans will be provided at the point of loading operations and is an essential piece of equipment in overall site safety and environmental protection
White Liquor Grounding
White Liquor is not normally combustible. However risk of fire does exist in the presence of TRS gases. These fumes are flammable and can be ignited by heat or flame. Vapors have been known to travel back to ignition sources and flashback.
- Vehicle grounding and bonding — ensure true grounding before product flow is permitted
- Explosion-proof enclosures — meet or exceed UL, CSA, and Ex requirements
- Non-sparking tools are also recommended while working around this product
White Liquor Safety Gates
Safety Gates will be installed at the top of stairs and any other openings to ensure operator safety at all times.
YellowGate Safety Gates
SafeRack’s line of industrial safety gates is the most flexible product on the market with the ability span openings between 16” and 36” and is field adjustable with nothing more than a wrench. Learn More
White Liquor Options
- Lighting – Lighting both over and under the platform will be provided. For overcast days or second shift, lighting is essential for improved safety and improved productivity.
- Platform & Canopies – Full platform canopies reduce exposure to the elements and improve the safe and productive loading operation from the operator’s perspective.
- Operator Shelter – Depending on your site requirements, consideration should be given to the requirement of an operator or guard building on the loading platform. This can be customized to meet specific site requirements
- Wheel Chocks – Railcar Wheel Chocks provide fast blocking of all types of railcars and meet OSHA regulations to safely prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. This is a requirement by the Department of Homeland Security
Personal Protective Equipment PPE Requirements
Mandatory Safety Attire: H2O2 should never come in contact with combustible materials such as cloth or leather. Stepping in even a small puddle of concentrated H2O2 can initiate combustion of leather footwear.
Eye/Face Protection: Wear “snug fitting” chemical safety goggles with a full face shield.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Best practice includes protective chemical, full-body encapsulating suit made of vinyl, neoprene, PVC or polyethylene. As well as, a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® – PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® – PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. The following materials should NOT be used: neoprene, nylon, polyvinyl chloride
Respiratory Protection: Up to 5 ppm:
(APF = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against chlorine*; or Any supplied-air respirator*.
*Reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards for more information.
Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control the amount in the air. Consider using a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent the release of this material due to equipment failure. * For illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs
Customer Reviews5 5Allows operators safe access to the top of rail cars.
We used to take product samples from rail cars as well as open vent hatches for unloading. This can now be done at our unloading zone as opposed to hundreds of yards down the track where our stationary stand resides. This also allows operators safe access to the top of rail cars without having to use ladders or a safety harness to tie off.By Blake from Michelin North America, Inc. on 3/4/154 5These are the best retrofit safety gates that I have ever seen.
The experience with SafeRack was helpful and easy and the product is of very good quality and easy to install. Chris Hite was very responsive and kept us informed of delivery date. As for the gates, these are the best retrofit safety gates that I have seen. The thought process to make them fit virtually any application is excellent. I like the bright yellow color and the versatility of which way the opened; the ease of setting tension. They were easy to assemble and install. I would recommend them because of the ease of installation and assembly.By Marshall Carter from Calpine Corporation on 2/28/125 5Compact size, light weight for moving by service people.
Adjustable height and moving direction for type of service. Compact size, light weight for moving by service people.By Bong Soo Kim from Kolon Industries on 10/9/145 5Quick response on all matters.
Quick response on all matters. It is working well for the application that was needed.By Mitch LeBato from UTLX Manufacturing LLC on 3/31/165 5Kudos to SafeRack!
Mark Gardner handled the sale well. The gangway foot lock pedal’s design gave more peace of mind to the operators and will save time every time the gangways are operated. Kudos to SafeRack for taking the time to design the pedal and get it right.By George Bisanz from Conoco Phillips on 10/31/114 5I was very pleased with the knowledge and ability of your company.
Phyllis Sikes was very responsive. I was very pleased with the knowledge and ability of your company to fulfill our needs and your quick response back with the part I needed.By Pat Ryan from Rentech Energy on 6/20/11
White Liquor 101
Things to know about White Liquor
White liquor is an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide used in the Kraft process of making paper and corrugated boxes. Following debarking and chipping of resinous wood, the chipped wood pieces are “cooked” or digested with steam @ approximately 150 psig in the digester with the white liquor solution. After cooking for about 6 hours the lignin binder is dissolved and cellulose fibers, now called pulp or brown stock are separated from the spent cooking liquor (black liquor). The kraft process is associated with strong smelling gases, organic sulphides, which can be an environmental concern.
All the “cooking” liquors in the Kraft paper making process, whether white, green or black tend to be very corrosive and may contain several different toxic and hazardous ingredients. In addition, some of the processes may emit gases, vapors or dust that may be hazardous.
First aid measures for exposure include – removing operators from the source of exposure and into fresh air. Remove contaminated clothing immediately; wash skin thoroughly with soap and water; flush eyes with tepid water for 15 minutes. If ingested do not induce vomiting, but immediately call your local poison control center.
Is your plant or facility compliant with ANSI, OSHA, and local safety codes? We can help!
EMERGENCY EYEWASHES / SHOWER EQUIPMENT AND THE ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 – 2014 STANDARD
Following eye contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent permanent damage. In the event of skin contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent slow-healing chemical burns.
Are you aware that ANSI guidelines state that Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55′ from contaminates or hazardous materials and located on the same horizontal plane, with no obstructions? If bottom loading/unloading, an additional shower should be located at grade as well. SafeRack provides the above equipment plus much more needed to keep employees safe and expedite bulk chemical loading and unloading.
OSHA Regulation Experts – Does your existing chemical safety equipment or chemical loading systems meet OSHA’s latest requirements? SafeRack’s professional technical sales consultants are available to meet with your team to make recommendations to keep your facility in front of OSHA’s ever-changing country and region-specific standards and regulations, including lifeline and trolley beam fall arrest systems, metal stairs, and access platforms.
The SafeRack approach is a collaborative one. Let’s call it The SafeRack Way. We have, over many years amassed a great deal of experience and understanding of the safety aspects involved in loading road tankers and railcars, as well as the behavioral habits of the operators.
Experts In Chemical Loading
- Aluminum Sulfate
- Ammonium Nitrate
- DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid)
- Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid
- Ethyl Chloride
- Ferrous Chloride
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Methyl Ethyl Ketone
- Molten Sulphur
- Nitric Acid
- Renewable Diesel
- Sodium Hypochlorite
- Sulfuric Acid
- Sulfur Dioxide
- Titanium Tetrachloride
- UAN (Urea Ammonium Nitrate)
- Vinyl Chloride
- Specialty Chemical
North America’s largest loading terminal
World-leading designer, manufacturer, and installer of truck and railcar loading platforms
As one of the primary railcar loading points, Hardisty is one of the major crude oil hubs in North America and a major origination point of pipelines that export to the United States. SCS was asked to supply and construct a SafeRack crude oil loadout terminal spanning nearly half a mile. The USD Hardisty terminal can load up to two 120-railcar unit trains per day and consists of a fixed loading rack with 62 railcar loading positions enclosed, separate control, operator and mechanical buildings, as well as a unit train staging area and loop tracks capable of holding multiple unit trains simultaneously. SCS also supplied and installed boom-supported loading arms with supply and vapor management systems.
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Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina