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Although no two Chlorine Loading solutions will be identical, the product itself determines much of the critical design criteria that will ensure that optimum safety and productivity can work together in harmony.
In the United States, chlorine is a “tight-fill” (closed-loop) loading operation and is loaded into trucks or railcars via chemical hoses or by-pass arms. Chlorine, if not handled properly can be fatal and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required. Additionally, because operators are on top of the vehicles during the loading process, fall prevention is essential, not only for safety but increases throughput.
Chlorine is transported in 18,000 to 23,000-gallon DOT 105 class dedicated thermal insulated and pressurized tank cars. Chlorine tank cars come in three sizes 55, 85 or 90 ton capacities. It’s imperative that the tank cars not be loaded in excess of the load limit stenciled on the side of the car; therefore we would always recommend a secondary overfill device. The rails cars themselves have a 10′ outside diameter and an overall length ranging from 33’ to 48’, with a 6’x6′ centered crash box.
Chlorine tank cars are top un-loaded by increasing the pressure in the vapor space above the liquid level to force the chlorine up the discharge pipe and out the liquid angle valves. Connections to the Angle valves are typically made from one inch schedule 80 carbon steel pipe, approximately 15” long with standard NPT threaded ends. Additional padding (increasing the pressure in the vapor space) with compressed dry air or nitrogen can be used if the tank car pressure drops during the unloading process.
DOT MC-330 & MC-331 tank trailers are used to transport chlorine over roads and highways with a capacity of 15 – 20 tons (13,600 kg – 20,000 kg) The trailers can be top or bottom loaded/unloaded using the same man way and valve arrangements as rail tank cars and are required to have excess flow check valves under both the liquid and gas angle valves. Before loading begins, all hoses and ANSI fittings should be connected to the trailer for accurate axle weight to prevent overfilling.View Full Text
Typical Chlorine Loading Platform
Typically, as a starting point, we will need to know answers to these questions for your project
- Will you be loading or unloading?
- Tell me more about your company’s process for handling chlorine
- Do you have a track or truck scale so you don’t overload?
- Are you planning on using nitrogen or dry air to pad the cars?
- Is the loading station indoors or outdoors?
In addition, we undertake a detailed site survey to check and clarify all dimensions and other salient issues.
Chlorine is typically loaded into railcars and road trailers via chemical hoses.
The current best loading practice is to use a PTFE lined chemical hose, with a quick-acting coupling, often in the form of Hammer Unions with a stabber pipe.
In the U.S. loading arms are generally not used for the transfer of liquid chlorine, due to cost and long-term maintenance issues. By-pass arms however, can be used to support the chlorine hose, making it easier to handle. Likewise, you also have the option to use a hose carrier. Emergency Shut-off Valves (ESV’s) can also be fitted near the inlet of the hose for additional safety in the event of a leak, rupture or drive-off.
Loading Gangways and Safety Cages
A wider access gangway (36″-48″ is preferable) as it helps improve access and egress to and from the vessel. In addition, a wider gangway will reduce the risk of the operator’s PPE getting caught, torn or damaged, and will improve productivity and safety. Powered gangway solutions are also an option, with both hydraulic and pneumatic solutions being commonly used.
Each gangway will be fitted with a two-rail safety cage for the railcar crash box. This will be a centered 6’x6’ safety cage to sit directly over the cashbox. This will provide a safe, secure work environment for your operator when connected to their breathing apparatus
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Chlorine Eye Wash/Drench Showers
ANSI guidelines state that an Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55’ (16.8m) from contaminants or hazardous materials.
Eyewash stations need to be on the same horizontal plane with no obstructions.
Therefore, we would propose the installation of a standard combination Drench Shower/Eyewash Unit, which will save limited space and fit easily into any work environment.
Chlorine Spill Containment
Spill containment pans will be provided at the point of loading operations and is an essential piece of equipment in overall site safety and environmental protection
While chlorine is not flammable, industry best practice includes the grounding of all vessels before starting the (un)loading process.
- Ground controllers — ensure true grounding before product flow is permitted
- Explosion-proof enclosures — meet or exceed UL, CSA and Ex requirements
Chlorine Safety Gates
Safety Gates will be installed at the top of stairs and any other openings to ensure operator safety at all times.
YellowGate Safety Gates
SafeRack’s line of industrial safety gates is the most flexible product on the market with the ability span openings between 16” and 36” and is field adjustable with nothing more than a wrench. Learn More
- Lighting – Lighting both over and under the platform will be provided. For overcast days or second shift, lighting is essential for improved safety and improved productivity.
- Platform & Canopies – Full platform canopies reduce exposure to the elements and improve the safe and productive loading operation from the operator’s perspective.
- Operator Shelter – Depending on your site requirements, consideration should be given to the requirement of an operator or guard building on the loading platform. This can be customized to meet specific site requirements
- Wheel Chocks – Railcar Wheel Chocks provide fast blocking of all types of railcars and meet OSHA regulations to safely prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. This is a requirement by the Department of Homeland Security
Personal Protective Equipment PPE Requirements
Eye/Face Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles. A face shield (with safety goggles) may also be necessary.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Coveralls or long sleeve shirts and pants in some operations. Wear a chemical protective, full-body encapsulating suit, and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® – PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® – PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. The following materials should NOT be used: natural rubber, polyvinyl chloride. Recommendations are NOT valid for very thin neoprene rubber gloves (0.3 mm or less).
Respiratory Protection: Up to 5 ppm:
(APF = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against chlorine*; or Any supplied-air respirator*.
*Reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards for more information.
Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control the amount in the air. Consider using a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent the release of this material due to equipment failure. * For illustrative purposes only. Our experts will work with you and your team for a custom solution to suit your needs
We recommend that you also refer to the Chlorine Institute, found at chlorineinstitute.org. The Chlorine Institute (CI) was founded in 1924 and is a technical trade association of companies involved in the safe production, distribution and use of chlorine, sodium and potassium hydroxides and sodium hypochlorite, the distribution and use of hydrogen chloride and the distribution of vinyl chloride monomer.
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Things to know about Chlorine
Chlorine is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and is classified as a hazardous material, with the DOT identification number UN 1017.
Chlorine is transported as a liquefied gas, under its own vapor pressure, via trucks and tank cars. Since the 1950’s the largest use for chlorine was in the manufacture of ethylene oxide and glycol (antifreeze fluids) It’s also used to make hundreds of consumer products ranging from paper products to paints, and from textiles to insecticides.
When liquid chlorine is released, it quickly turns into a gas (yellow-green in color) that stays close to the ground and spreads rapidly. Chlorine itself is not flammable, but it can react explosively when exposed to ammonia or turpentine. Exposure to chlorine can kill you by dissolving the lining of your lungs, so you can’t breathe. On the other hand, chlorine added to a swimming pool is diluted to the point where it’s only very mildly toxic.
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) @ .05 parts per million
Is your plant or facility compliant with ANSI, OSHA, and local safety codes? We can help!
EMERGENCY EYEWASHES / SHOWER EQUIPMENT AND THE ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 – 2014 STANDARD
Following eye contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent permanent damage. In the event of skin contact, you must start washing with water immediately to prevent slow-healing chemical burns.
Are you aware that ANSI guidelines state that Eye Wash/Drench Showers need to be located 10 seconds or 55′ from contaminates or hazardous materials and located on the same horizontal plane, with no obstructions? If bottom loading/unloading, an additional shower should be located at grade as well. SafeRack provides the above equipment plus much more needed to keep employees safe and expedite bulk chemical loading and unloading.
OSHA Regulation Experts – Does your existing chemical safety equipment or chemical loading systems meet OSHA’s latest requirements? SafeRack’s professional technical sales consultants are available to meet with your team to make recommendations to keep your facility in front of OSHA’s ever-changing country and region-specific standards and regulations, including lifeline and trolley beam fall arrest systems, metal stairs, and access platforms.
The SafeRack approach is a collaborative one. Let’s call it The SafeRack Way. We have, over many years amassed a great deal of experience and understanding of the safety aspects involved in loading road tankers and railcars, as well as the behavioral habits of the operators.
With the best intentions in the world, if a system is designed that is inconvenient or difficult to operate, it becomes the operator’s mission to bypass, abuse, and generally defeat that system. This could result in the (un)loading procedure being far more dangerous than no system at all.
To avoid this, SafeRack has developed industry-leading safe access solutions, seamlessly integrating loading arms and ancillary 3rd party equipment to be user friendly with the operation of loading becoming cleaner, more automated, and far safer.
From Scope Development to Installation and Training – SafeRack understands how proper training prolongs the life of your equipment, reduces long-term maintenance costs, and protects the safety of employees. From installation and commissioning through to long-term preventative maintenance programs, our Aftermarket Team offers a full menu of training options that can be tailored to suit your site needs.
North America’s largest loading terminal
World-leading designer, manufacturer, and installer of truck and railcar loading platforms
As one of the primary railcar loading points, Hardisty is one of the major crude oil hubs in North America and a major origination point of pipelines that export to the United States. SCS was asked to supply and construct a SafeRack crude oil loadout terminal spanning nearly half a mile. The USD Hardisty terminal can load up to two 120-railcar unit trains per day and consists of a fixed loading rack with 62 railcar loading positions enclosed, separate control, operator and mechanical buildings, as well as a unit train staging area and loop tracks capable of holding multiple unit trains simultaneously. SCS also supplied and installed boom-supported loading arms with supply and vapor management systems.
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Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina
Located in South Carolina